Temple of Portunus, Rome, c. 120-80 B.C.E.

Temple of Portunus, Rome, c. 120-80 B.C.E.


Temple of Portunus

It is in the Ionic order and is by the ancient Forum Boarium by the Tiber, during Antiquity the site overlooked the Port Tiberinus at a sharp bend in the river from here, Portunus watched over cattle barges as they entered the city from Ostia. [2]

The temple was originally built in the 3rd or 4th   century   BC but was rebuilt between 120 – 80   BC, [3] the rectangular building consists of a tetrastyle portico and cella, raised on a high podium reached by a flight of steps, which it retains. [4] Like the Maison Carrée in Nîmes, it has a pronaos portico of four Ionic columns across and two columns deep. The columns of the portico are free-standing, while the remaining five columns on the long sides and the four columns at the rear are half-columns engaged along the walls of the cella. This form is sometimes called pseudoperipteral , as distinct from a true peripteral temple like the Parthenon entirely surrounded by free-standing columns. The Ionic capitals are of the original form, different in the frontal and side views, except in the volutes at the corners, which project at 45°, a common Roman detail. It is built of tuff and travertine with a stucco surface.

If still in use by the 4th-century, the temple would have been closed during the persecution of pagans in the late Roman Empire. The temple owes its state of preservation to its being converted for use as a church in 872 and rededicated to Santa Maria Egiziaca (Saint Mary of Egypt). [5] Its Ionic order has been much admired, drawn and engraved and copied since the 16th century. [6] The original coating of stucco over its tufa and travertine construction has been lost.

The circular Temple of Hercules Victor is south-east of the temple in the Forum Boarium.

The 18th   century Temple of Harmony in Somerset, England is a folly based on the Temple of Portunus.


소비하는 존재

1세기 초의 잘 보존된 직사각형의 신전이다. 포르투누스 신은 가축, 키, 항구와 관련된 남신으로, 고대 로마의 하천 포구 가까이에 있는 신전의 위치와 잘 어울린다.

로마 공화정기에는 정치적/군사적 업적을 이룬 지도자나 엘리트 시민들이 나서서 기념비적 건축물을 만드는 것이 특징이었다. 신전들은 이러한 건축물들 가운데서도 무척 인기 있는 선택이었다. 신전은 성스러운 면과 세속적인 면 양쪽에서 공공 이벤트에 필요한 화제성과 실용성을 모두 갖추었기 때문이었다.

포르투누스 신전은 코린트 기둥의 둥근 형태의 신전인 승리자 헤라클레스(Herakles Victor)의 신전에 인접해 있다. 그간 포르투누스 신전의 주신에 대해 학자들 사이에 많은 논쟁이 있었으며 그 중 몇명은 이 신전이 포르투나 비릴리스(포르투누스 신의 또다른 변형 형태로, 운명과 풍요의 여신)에게 봉헌된 것이라고 했다. 하지만 현재 이런 시각은 소수이다. 포르투누스신을 기념하는 축제(the Portunalia)가 8월 17일에 열렸다.

<신전의 평면과 구조>
신전은 직사각 형태로 대략 10.5m x 19m의 크기이다. 건물의 평면은 의사주주식으로, 독립된 기둥들이 열을 이루어 4면을 둘러싸는 대신-그리스 신전이 이런 식으로, 기둥의 무게를 기둥들이 지지한다-, 정면에만 독립된 열주들이 서있고, 나머지 부분은 부주(벽면에 붙어있는 장식용의 기둥)로 되어있다.-이 형태의 경우, 그리스와 다르게 기둥이 아닌 벽체가 지붕을 지지하게 된다-

정면의 현관부(포치)는 석회질의 이오니아식 기둥이 지지하고 있으며 앞쪽에 네 개, 좀더 안쪽에 2개의 기둥이 있다. 이오니아식 기둥에는 두루마리 모양의 기둥머리를 쉽게 찾아볼 수 있다. 건물의 양쪽 면에는 5개의 부주가, 뒷면에는 4개의 부주가 있다.

전체적으로 신전은 복합구조로서, 상부구조에는 석회와 투포(화산재와 석회가 뒤섞여 굳어진 석회암의 일종)가 재료로 이용되었다. 투포 위에 치장벽토가 칠해지면서 겉보기에는 석회와 무척 비슷하게 보이게 됐다.

신전의 디자인은 전통적인 건축 형태의 여러 요소를 혼합한 것이다. 이탈리아의 전통에서는 높은 포디움(신전으로 오르는 계단)과 강한 인상을 주는 정면부를 따왔다. 헬레니즘 건축에서는 이오니아식 기둥과 부주를 가져왔다. 영구적 성향을 띠는 재료인 돌(이에 반해 이탈리아에서는 전통적으로 상부구조에 나무, 테라코타, 진흙벽돌을 사용했다)을 사용하는 것은 관습의 변화를 보여준다. 포르투누스 신전은 그 자체로 현실의 변화를 나타낼 뿐 아니라, 다음 천년을 바라보는 지중해 세계의 문화적 풍경이 변화하고 있음을 나타내준다.

포르투누스 신전은 과거 로마의 첫째 가는 항구였던 보아리움 포럼(Boarium Forum)에 위치해 있다. 보아리움 포럼이나 그에 인접한 홀리토리움 포럼(Holitorium Forum) 내에 있는 다른 신전들보다 좀더 작은 크기이긴 하지만, 공화정 말기의 신전 건물로는 가장 전형적인 형태에 들어맞는다.

포르투누스 신전과 가장 닮은꼴의 건물로는 티부르(현재의 티볼리)에 있는 시빌레 신전-기원전 150

125년 경에 만들어진-을 꼽을 수 있다. 포르투누스 신전의 양식을 차용한 또다른 예시로는 남부 프랑스의 님에 있는 메종 카레와 같은 율리우스-클라우디우스 신전이 있다.

포르투누스 신전은 확실히 좋은 보존 상태에 있다. 872년에 이 고대의 신전은 이집트의 성 마리아( Santa Maria Egyziaca)를 위한 기독교 사원으로 재봉헌되면서 건물 구조가 유지되었다. 이 건축물은 수많은 예술가들과 건축가들에게 몇세기에 걸쳐 영감을 주었다. 이 중에는 16세기 건축을 연구한 안드레아 팔라디오( Andrea Palladio)도 있었다.

신고전주의 건축은 포르투누스 신전 양식의 영향을 받았으며 이로 인해 1767년 영국 서머셋에 지어진 장식용 건물(folly)인 Temple of Harmony와 같은 건물들이 나타났다.

포르투누스 신전은 그 자체로 잘 보존된 건축물이자, 다른 건축가들에게 영감을 주는 건축물일 뿐 아니라 과거 로마의 건축물들과 그로 인한 도시 전경이 어땠을지-크고 작은 신전들이 점점이 박혀 도시에서 나타나는 커다란 활력의 중심이 되었을-를 떠올려 볼 수 있다는 데서 중요성을 갖는다. 그렇게 살아남은 신전들은 당시의 활기와 로마의 건축적 전통을 상기시켜 준다.


Early Empire

With Augustus, the Roman Empire begins, and so does a 200-year period of peace and stability known as the Pax Romana.

27 B.C.E. - 117 C.E.

Augustus of Primaporta

Nothing was more important to a Roman emperor than his image.

Video (PageIndex<4>): Augustus of Primaporta, 1st century C.E. (Vatican Museums)

Augustus and the power of images

Today, politicians think very carefully about how they will be photographed. Think about all the campaign commercials and print ads we are bombarded with every election season. These images tell us a lot about the candidate, including what they stand for and what agendas they are promoting. Similarly, Roman art was closely intertwined with politics and propaganda. This is especially true with portraits of Augustus, the first emperor of the Roman Empire Augustus invoked the power of imagery to communicate his ideology.

Figure (PageIndex<37>): Augustus of Primaporta, 1st century C.E., marble, 2.03 meters high (Vatican Museums)

Augustus of Primaporta

One of Augustus&rsquo most famous portraits is the so-called Augustus of Primaporta of 20 B.C.E. (the sculpture gets its name from the town in Italy where it was found in 1863). At first glance this statue might appear to simply resemble a portrait of Augustus as an orator and general, but this sculpture also communicates a good deal about the emperor&rsquos power and ideology. In fact, in this portrait Augustus shows himself as a great military victor and a staunch supporter of Roman religion. The statue also foretells the 200 year period of peace that Augustus initiated, called the Pax Romana.

Figure (PageIndex<38>): Detail, Augustus of Primaporta, 1st century C.E., marble, 2.03 meters high (Vatican Museums)

Recalling the Golden Age of ancient Greece

In this marble freestanding sculpture, Augustus stands in a contrapposto pose (a relaxed pose where one leg bears weight). The emperor wears military regalia and his right arm is outstretched, demonstrating that the emperor is addressing his troops. We immediately sense the emperor&rsquos power as the leader of the army and a military conqueror.

Figure (PageIndex<39>): Doryphoros (Spear Bearer), Roman copy after an original by the Greek sculptor Polykleitos from c. 450-440 B.C.E., marble, 6&rsquo6&Prime (Archaeological Museum, Naples)

Delving further into the composition of the Primaporta statue, a distinct resemblance to Polykleitos&rsquo Doryphoros, a Classical Greek sculpture of the fifth century B.C.E., is apparent. Both have a similar contrapposto stance and both are idealized. That is to say that both Augustus and the Spear-Bearer are portrayed as youthful and flawless individuals: they are perfect. The Romans often modeled their art on Greek predecessors. This is significant because Augustus is essentially depicting himself with the perfect body of a Greek athlete: he is youthful and virile, despite the fact that he was middle-aged at the time of the sculpture&rsquos commissioning. Furthermore, by modeling the Primaporta statue on such an iconic Greek sculpture created during the height of Athens&rsquo influence and power, Augustus connects himself to the Golden Age of that previous civilization.

The cupid and dolphin

So far the message of the Augustus of Primaporta is clear: he is an excellent orator and military victor with the youthful and perfect body of a Greek athlete. Is that all there is to this sculpture? Definitely not! The sculpture contains even more symbolism. First, at Augustus&rsquo right leg is cupid figure riding a dolphin.

Figure (PageIndex<40>): Detail, Augustus of Primaporta, 1st century C.E., marble, 2.03 meters high (Vatican Museums)

The dolphin became a symbol of Augustus&rsquo great naval victory over Mark Antony and Cleopatra at the Battle of Actium in 31 BCE, a conquest that made Augustus the sole ruler of the Empire. The cupid astride the dolphin sends another message too: that Augustus is descended from the gods. Cupid is the son of Venus, the Roman goddess of love. Julius Caesar, the adoptive father of Augustus, claimed to be descended from Venus and therefore Augustus also shared this connection to the gods.

Figure (Pagendex<41>): Detail of breastplate, Augustus of Primaporta, 1st century C.E., marble, 2.03 meters high (Vatican Museums)

The breastplate

Finally, Augustus is wearing a cuirass, or breastplate, that is covered with figures that communicate additional propagandistic messages. Scholars debate over the identification over each of these figures, but the basic meaning is clear: Augustus has the gods on his side, he is an international military victor, and he is the bringer of the Pax Romana, a peace that encompasses all the lands of the Roman Empire.

In the central zone of the cuirass are two figures, a Roman and a Parthian. On the right, the enemy Parthian returns military standards. This is a direct reference to an international diplomatic victory of Augustus in 20 B.C.E., when these standards were finally returned to Rome after a previous battle.

Figure (PageIndex<42>): Detail of figures on breastplate, Augustus of Primaporta, 1st century C.E., marble, 2.03 meters high (Vatican Museums)

Surrounding this central zone are gods and personifications. At the top are Sol and Caelus, the sun and sky gods respectively. On the sides of the breastplate are female personifications of countries conquered by Augustus. These gods and personifications refer to the Pax Romana. The message is that the sun is going to shine on all regions of the Roman Empire, bringing peace and prosperity to all citizens. And of course, Augustus is the one who is responsible for this abundance throughout the Empire.

Beneath the female personifications are Apollo and Diana, two major deities in the Roman pantheon clearly Augustus is favored by these important deities and their appearance here demonstrates that the emperor supports traditional Roman religion. At the very bottom of the cuirass is Tellus, the earth goddess, who cradles two babies and holds a cornucopia. Tellus is an additional allusion to the Pax Romana as she is a symbol of fertility with her healthy babies and overflowing horn of plenty.

Not simply a portrait

The Augustus of Primaporta is one of the ways that the ancients used art for propagandistic purposes. Overall, this statue is not simply a portrait of the emperor, it expresses Augustus&rsquo connection to the past, his role as a military victor, his connection to the gods, and his role as the bringer of the Roman Peace.

Additional resources:

D. E. E. Kleiner, Roman Sculpture (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1994).

John Pollini, From Republic to Empire: Rhetoric, Religion, and Power in the Visual Culture of Ancient Rome (Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 2012).

Paul Zanker, The Power of Images in the Age of Augustus (Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 1990).

Smarthistory images for teaching and learning:

Figure (PageIndex<43>): More Smarthistory images&hellip

Ara Pacis

Augustus is said to have found Rome a city of brick and left it a city of marble&mdashthis altar symbolizes his golden age.

Video (PageIndex<5>): Ara Pacis Augustae (Altar of Augustan Peace), 9 B.C.E. (Ara Pacis Museum, Rome, Italy)

Figure (PageIndex<44>): Ara Pacis Augustae (Altar of Augustan Peace), 9 B.C.E. (Ara Pacis Museum, Rome, Italy) (photo: Steven Zucker, CC BY-NC-SA 2.0)

The Roman state religion in microcosm

The festivities of the Roman state religion were steeped in tradition and ritual symbolism. Sacred offerings to the gods, consultations with priests and diviners, ritual formulae, communal feasting&mdashwere all practices aimed at fostering and maintaining social cohesion and communicating authority. It could perhaps be argued that the Ara Pacis Augustae&mdashthe Altar of Augustan Peace&mdashrepresents in luxurious, stately microcosm the practices of the Roman state religion in a way that is simultaneously elegant and pragmatic.

Figure (PageIndex<45>): Portrait of Augustus as Pontifex Maximus from the Via Labicana, after 12 B.C.E. (Palazzo Massimo alle Terme, Rome)

Vowed on July 4, 13 B.C.E., and dedicated on January 30, 9 B.C.E., the monument stood proudly in the Campus Martius in Rome (a level area between several of Rome&rsquos hills and the Tiber River). It was adjacent to architectural complexes that cultivated and proudly displayed messages about the power, legitimacy, and suitability of their patron&mdashthe emperor Augustus. Now excavated, restored, and reassembled in a sleek modern pavilion designed by architect Richard Meier (2006), the Ara Pacis continues to inspire and challenge us as we think about ancient Rome.

Augustus himself discusses the Ara Pacis in his epigraphical memoir, Res Gestae Divi Augusti (&ldquoDeeds of the Divine Augustus&rdquo) that was promulgated upon his death in 14 C.E. Augustus states &ldquoWhen I returned to Rome from Spain and Gaul, having successfully accomplished deeds in those provinces &hellip the senate voted to consecrate the altar of August Peace in the Campus Martius &hellip on which it ordered the magistrates and priests and Vestal virgins to offer annual sacrifices&rdquo (Aug. RG 12).

An open-air altar for sacrifice

The Ara Pacis is, at its simplest, an open-air altar for blood sacrifice associated with the Roman state religion. The ritual slaughtering and offering of animals in Roman religion was routine, and such rites usually took place outdoors. The placement of the Ara Pacis in the Campus Martius (Field of Mars) along the Via Lata (now the Via del Corso) situated it close to other key Augustan monuments, notably the Horologium Augusti (a giant sundial) and the Mausoleum of Augustus.

Figure (PageIndex<46>): Illustration showing the likely original placement of the Ara Pacis Augustae (far right) in proximity to the Horologium Augusti (sundial) and the Mausoleum of Augustus in the background. (source)

The significance of the topographical placement would have been quite evident to ancient Romans. This complex of Augustan monuments made a clear statement about Augustus&rsquo physical transformation of Rome&rsquos urban landscape. The dedication to a rather abstract notion of peace (pax) is significant in that Augustus advertises the fact that he has restored peace to the Roman state after a long period of internal and external turmoil.

The altar (ara) itself sits within a monumental stone screen that has been elaborated with bas relief (low relief) sculpture, with the panels combining to form a programmatic mytho-historical narrative about Augustus and his administration, as well as about Rome&rsquos deep roots. The altar enclosure is roughly square while the altar itself sits atop a raised podium that is accessible via a narrow stairway.

The Outer screen&mdashprocessional scenes

Figure (PageIndex<47>): Processional scene (south side), Ara Pacis Augustae (Altar of Augustan Peace) 9 B.C.E. (Ara Pacis Museum, Rome) (photo: Steven Zucker, CC BY-NC-SA 2.0)

Processional scenes occupy the north and south flanks of the altar screen. The solemn figures, all properly clad for a rite of the state religion, proceed in the direction of the altar itself, ready to participate in the ritual. The figures all advance toward the west. The occasion depicted would seem to be a celebration of the peace (Pax) that Augustus had restored to the Roman empire. In addition four main groups of people are evident in the processions: (1) the lictors (the official bodyguards of magistrates), (2) priests from the major collegia of Rome, (3) members of the Imperial household, including women and children, and (4) attendants. There has been a good deal of scholarly discussion focused on two of three non-Roman children who are depicted.

Figure (PageIndex<48>): A member of the Priestly college (association) of Septemviri epulones, carries an incense box, processional scene (north side), Ara Pacis Augustae (Altar of Augustan Peace) 9 B.C.E. (Ara Pacis Museum, Rome) (photo: Steven Zucker, CC BY-NC-SA 2.0)

The north processional frieze, made up of priests and members of the Imperial household, is comprised of 46 figures. The priestly colleges (religious associations) represented include the Septemviri epulones (&ldquoseven men for sacrificial banquets&rdquo&mdashthey arranged public feasts connected to sacred holidays), whose members here carry an incense box (image above), and the quindecimviri sacris faciundis (&ldquofifteen men to perform sacred actions&rdquo&mdash their main duty was to guard and consult the Sibylline books (oracular texts) at the request of the Senate). Members of the imperial family, including Octavia Minor, follow behind.

Figure (PageIndex<49>): Augustus (far left) and members of the imperial household, Ara Pacis Augustae (Altar of Augustan Peace) 9 B.C.E. (Ara Pacis Museum, Rome) (source)

A good deal of modern restoration has been undertaken on the north wall, with many heads heavily restored or replaced. The south wall of the exterior screen depicts Augustus and his immediate family. The identification of the individual figures has been the source of a great deal of scholarly debate. Depicted here are Augustus (damaged, he appears at the far left in the image above) and Marcus Agrippa (friend, son-in-law, and lieutenant to Augustus, he appears, hooded, image below), along with other members of the imperial house. All of those present are dressed in ceremonial garb appropriate for the state sacrifice. The presence of state priests known as flamens (flamines) further indicate the solemnity of the occasion.

Figure (PageIndex<50>): Processional scene (south side) with Agrippa (hooded), Ara Pacis Augustae (Altar of Augustan Peace) 9 B.C.E. (Ara Pacis Museum, Rome) (photo: Steven Zucker, CC BY-NC-SA 2.0)

A running, vegetal frieze runs parallel to the processional friezes on the lower register. This vegetal frieze emphasizes the fertility and abundance of the lands, a clear benefit of living in a time of peace.

Mythological panels

Accompanying the processional friezes are four mythological panels that adorn the altar screen on its shorter sides. Each of these panels depicts a distinct scene:

  • a scene of a bearded male making sacrifice (below)
  • a scene of seated female goddess amid the fertility of Italy (also below)
  • a fragmentary scene with Romulus and Remus in the Lupercal grotto (where these two mythic founders of Rome were suckled by a she-wolf)
  • and a fragmentary panel showing Roma (the personification of Rome) as a seated goddess.

Since the early twentieth century, the mainstream interpretation of the sacrifice panel (above) has been that the scene depicts the Trojan hero Aeneas arriving in Italy and making a sacrifice to Juno. A recent re-interpretation offered by Paul Rehak argues instead that the bearded man is not Aeneas, but Numa Pompilius, Rome&rsquos second king. In Rehak&rsquos theory, Numa, renowned as a peaceful ruler and the founder of Roman religion, provides a counterbalance to the warlike Romulus on the opposite panel.

Figure (PageIndex<52>): Tellus (or Pax) Panel, Ara Pacis Augustae (Altar of Augustan Peace) 9 B.C.E. (Ara Pacis Museum, Rome) (photo: Steven Zucker, CC BY-NC-SA 2.0)

The better preserved panel of the east wall depicts a seated female figure (above) who has been variously interpreted as Tellus (the Earth), Italia (Italy), Pax (Peace), as well as Venus. The panel depicts a scene of human fertility and natural abundance. Two babies sit on the lap of the seated female, tugging at her drapery. Surrounding the central female is the natural abundance of the lands and flanking her are the personifications of the land and sea breezes. In all, whether the goddess is taken as Tellus or Pax, the theme stressed is the harmony and abundance of Italy, a theme central to Augustus&rsquo message of a restored peaceful state for the Roman people&mdashthe Pax Romana.

The Altar

The altar itself (below) sits within the sculpted precinct wall. It is framed by sculpted architectural mouldings with crouching gryphons surmounted by volutes flanking the altar. The altar was the functional portion of the monument, the place where blood sacrifice and/or burnt offerings would be presented to the gods.

Figure (PageIndex<53>): View to the altar, Ara Pacis Augustae (Altar of Augustan Peace) 9 B.C.E. (Ara Pacis Museum, Rome) (photo: Steven Zucker, CC BY-NC-SA 2.0)

Implications and interpretation

The implications of the Ara Pacis are far reaching. Originally located along the Via Lata (now Rome&rsquos Via del Corso), the altar is part of a monumental architectural makeover of Rome&rsquos Campus Martius carried out by Augustus and his family. Initially the makeover had a dynastic tone, with the Mausoleum of Augustus near the river. The dedication of the Horologium (sundial) of Augustus and the Ara Pacis, the Augustan makeover served as a potent, visual reminder of Augustus&rsquo success to the people of Rome. The choice to celebrate peace and the attendant prosperity in some ways breaks with the tradition of explicitly triumphal monuments that advertise success in war and victories won on the battlefield. By championing peace&mdashat least in the guise of public monuments&mdashAugustus promoted a powerful and effective campaign of political message making.

Rediscovery

The first fragments of the Ara Pacis emerged in 1568 beneath Rome&rsquos Palazzo Chigi near the basilica of San Lorenzo in Lucina. These initial fragments came to be dispersed among various museums, including the Villa Medici, the Vatican Museums, the Louvre, and the Uffizi. It was not until 1859 that further fragments of the Ara Pacis emerged. The German art historian Friedrich von Duhn of the University of Heidelberg is credited with the discovery that the fragments corresponded to the altar mentioned in Augustus&rsquo Res Gestae. Although von Duhn reached this conclusion by 1881, excavations were not resumed until 1903, at which time the total number of recovered fragments reached 53, after which the excavation was again halted due to difficult conditions. Work at the site began again in February 1937 when advanced technology was used to freeze approximately 70 cubic meters of soil to allow for the extraction of the remaining fragments. This excavation was mandated by the order of the Italian government of Benito Mussolini and his planned jubilee in 1938 that was designed to commemorate the 2,000th anniversary of Augustus&rsquo birth.

Mussolini and Augustus

Figure (PageIndex<54>): Vittorio Ballio Morpurgo, Ara Pacis Pavillion, 1938 (photo: Indeciso42 CC BY-SA 4.0)

The revival of the glory of ancient Rome was central to the propaganda of the Fascist regime in Italy during the 1930s. Benito Mussolini himself cultivated a connection with the personage of Augustus and claimed his actions were aimed at furthering the continuity of the Roman Empire. Art, architecture, and iconography played a key role in this propagandistic &ldquorevival&rdquo. Following the 1937 retrieval of additional fragments of the altar, Mussolini directed architect Vittorio Ballio Morpurgo to construct an enclosure for the restored altar adjacent to the ruins of the Mausoleum of Augustus near the Tiber river, creating a key complex for Fascist propaganda. Newly built Fascist palaces, bearing Fascist propaganda, flank the space dubbed &ldquoPiazza Augusto Imperatore&rdquo (&ldquoPlaza of the emperor Augustus&rdquo). The famous Res Gestae Divi Augusti (&ldquoDeeds of the Divine Augustus&rdquo) was re-created on the wall of the altar&rsquos pavilion. The concomitant effect was meant to lead the viewer to associate Mussolini&rsquos accomplishments with those of Augustus himself.

The Ara Pacis and Richard Meier

Figure (PageIndex<55>): Richard Meier and Partners, Ara Pacis Museum, Rome, 2006

The firm of architect Richard Meier was engaged to design and execute a new and improved pavilion to house the Ara Pacis and to integrate the altar with a planned pedestrian area surrounding the adjacent Mausoleum of Augustus.

Between 1995 and the dedication of te new pavilion in 2006 Meier crafted the modernist pavilion that capitalizes on glass curtain walls granting visitors views of the Tiber river and the mausoleum while they perambulate in the museum space focused on the altar itself. The Meier pavilion has not been well-received, with some critics immediately panning it and some Italian politicians declaring that it should be dismantled. The museum has also been the victim of targeted vandalism.

Enduring monumentality

The Ara Pacis Augustae continues to engage us and to incite controversy. As a monument that is the product of a carefully constructed ideological program, it is highly charged with socio-cultural energy that speaks to us about the ordering of the Roman world and its society&mdashthe very Roman universe.

Augustus had a strong interest in reshaping the Roman world (with him as the sole leader), but had to be cautious about how radical those changes seemed to the Roman populace. While he defeated enemies, both foreign and domestic, he was concerned about being perceived as too authoritarian&ndashhe did not wish to labeled as a king (rex) for fear that this would be too much for the Roman people to accept. So the Augustan scheme involved a declaration that Rome&rsquos republican government had been &ldquorestored&rdquo by Augustus and he styled himself as the leading citizen of the republic (princeps). These political and ideological motives then influence and guide the creation of his program of monumental art and architecture. These monumental forms, of which the Ara Pacis is a prime example, served to both create and reinforce these Augustan messages.

The story of the Ara Pacis become even more complicated since it is an artifact that then was placed in the service of ideas in the modern age. This results in its identity being impossibly, a mixture of Classicism and Fascism and modernism&mdashall difficult to interpret in a postmodern reality. It is important t

o remember that the sculptural reliefs were created in the first place to be easily readable, so that the viewer could understand the messages of Augustus and his circle without the need to read elaborate texts. Augustus pioneered the use of such ideological messages that relied on clear iconography to get their message across. A great deal was at stake for Augustus and it seems, by virtue of history, that the political choices he made proved prudent. The messages of the Pax Romana, of a restored state, and of Augustus as a leading republican citizen, are all part of an effective and carefully constructed veneer. What was the Pax Romana?

Additional resources:

David Castriota, The Ara Pacis Augustae and the Imagery of Abundance in Later Greek and Early Roman Imperial Art (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1995).

Diane A. Conlin, The Artists of the Ara Pacis: the Process of Hellenization in Roman Relief Sculpture (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1997).

Nancy de Grummond, &ldquoPax Augusta and the Horae on the Ara Pacis Augustae,&rdquo American Journal of Archaeology 94.4 (1990) pp. 663&ndash677.

Karl Galinksy, Augustan Culture: an Interpretive Introduction (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1996).

Karl Galinksy ed., The Cambridge Companion to the Age of Augustus (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2005).

Peter Heslin, &ldquoAugustus, Domitian and the So-called Horologium Augusti,&rdquo Journal of Roman Studies, 97 (2007), pp. 1-20.

P. J. Holliday, &ldquoTime, History, and Ritual on the Ara Pacis Augustae,&rdquo The Art Bulletin 72.4 (December 1990), pp. 542&ndash557.

Paul Jacobs and Diane Conlin, Campus Martius: the Field of Mars in the Life of Ancient Rome (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2015).

Diana E. E. Kleiner, Roman Sculpture (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1994).

Gerhard M. Koeppel, &ldquoThe Grand Pictorial Tradition of Roman Historical Representation during the Early Empire,&rdquo Aufstieg und Niedergang der römischen Welt II.12.1 (1982), pp. 507-535.

Gerhard M. Koeppel, &ldquoThe Role of Pictorial Models in the Creation of the Historical Relief during the Age of Augustus,&rdquo in The Age of Augustus, edited by R. Winkes (Providence, R.I.: Center for Old World Archaeology and Art, Brown University Louvain-La-Neuve, Belgium: Institut Supérieur d&rsquoArchéologie de d&rsquoHistoire de l&rsquoArt, Collège Érasme, 1985), pp. 89-106.

Paul Rehak, &ldquoAeneas or Numa? Rethinking the Meaning of the Ara Pacis Augustae,&rdquo The Art Bulletin 83.2 (Jun., 2001), pp. 190-208.

Paul Rehak, Imperium and Cosmos. Augustus and the Northern Campus Martius, edited by John G. Younger. (Madison, WI: The University of Wisconsin Press, 2006).

Alan Riding, &ldquoRichard Meier&rsquos New Home for the Ara Pacis, a Roman Treasure, Opens,&rdquo The New York Times April 24, 2006.

John Seabrook, &ldquoRoman Renovation,&rdquo The New Yorker, May 2, 2005 pp. 56-65.

J. Sieveking, &ldquoZur Ara Pacis,&rdquo Jahresheft des Österreichischen Archeologischen Institut 10 (1907).

Catherine Slessor, &ldquoRoman Remains,&rdquo Architectural Review, 219.1307 (2006), pp. 18-19.

M. J. Strazzulla, &ldquoWar and Peace: Housing the Ara Pacis in the Eternal City,&rdquo American Journal of Archaeology 113.2 (2009) pp. 1-10.

Stefan Weinstock, &ldquoPax and the &lsquoAra Pacis&rsquo,&rdquo The Journal of Roman Studies 50.1-2 (1960) pp. 44&ndash58.

Rolf Winkes ed., The age of Augustus: interdisciplinary conference held at Brown University, April 30-May 2, 1982 (Providence, R.I.: Center for Old World Archaeology and Art, Brown University Louvain-La-Neuve, Belgium: Institut Supérieur d&rsquoArchéologie de d&rsquoHistoire de l&rsquoArt, Collège Érasme, 1985).

Paul Zanker, The Power of Images in the Age of Augustus, trans. D. Schneider (Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 1987).

Smarthistory images for teaching and learning:

Figure (PageIndex<56>): More Smarthistory images&hellip

Gemma Augustea

Upper register, Dioskourides, Gemma Augustea, 9 &ndash 12 C.E., 19 x 23 cm, double-layered sardonyx with gold, gold-plated silver (Kunsthistorisches Museum Vienna)

Figure (PageIndex<58>): Dioskourides, Gemma Augustea, 9 &ndash 12 C.E., 19 x 23 cm, double-layered sardonyx with gold, gold-plated silver (Kunsthistorisches Museum Vienna)

When you think of Roman art, the Colosseum and the ruins of the Roman Forum immediately spring to mind. You may also think of all the public sculpture that decorated ancient Rome, such as the portrait of Augustus from Primaporta (left) or the Ara Pacis Augustae. These public works of art functioned as political propaganda and advertised to all Romans the accomplishments of the emperor. In public art Augustus wanted to promote that he was a military victor, that he brought peace to the Roman Empire, and that he was connected to the gods.

Figure (PageIndex<59>): Head (detail), Augustus of Primaporta, 1st century C.E. (Vatican Museums) (photo: Steven Zucker, CC BY-NC-SA 2.0)

Private art

But the emperor also commissioned small private works of art such as gems, and cameos. Unlike art in the public sphere, private art would not have been seen by a large audience. Instead, only a select few would have been granted access. If you were lucky enough to be invited to a dinner party at the emperor&rsquos palace, he might display his gem collection or show off his large imperial cameos. However, despite the fact that private art would not have been seen by the majority of Roman citizens, the messages contained within these works would have functioned in much the same way as their public counterparts. So if you were at that dinner party with Augustus and he showed you a large cameo, that cameo would have advertised the emperor&rsquos military victories, his role as the bringer of peace, and his connection to the gods.

Figure (PageIndex<60>): Gemma Claudia, 49 C.E., 120 x 152 cm without setting, five-layered onyx and 18th century gold band (Kunsthistorisches Museum, Vienna) Emperor Claudius (left), his fourth wife, Agrippina the Younger behind him, her parents are opposite, Germanicus, brother of the emperor, and behind him his wife, Agrippina the Elder

Cameos were a popular medium in the private art of the Roman Empire. While cameos first appeared in the Hellenistic period, they became most fashionable under the Romans. Typically cameos were made of a brown stone that had bands or layers of white throughout, such as sardonyx. This layered stone was then carved in such a way that the figures stood out in white relief while the background remained the dark part of the stone. Most cameos were small and functioned as pendants or rings. But there are a few examples of much larger cameos that were specifically commissioned by the emperor and members of his imperial circle, the most famous example is the Gemma Augustea.

Gemma Augustea

The Gemma Augustea is divided into two registers that are crammed with figures and iconography. The upper register contains three historical figures and a host of deities and personifications. Our eyes immediately gravitate towards the center of the upper register and the two large enthroned figures, Roma (the personification of the city of Rome) and the emperor Augustus.

Roma is surrounded by military paraphernalia while Augustus holds a scepter, a symbol of his right to rule and his role as the leader of the Roman Empire. At his feet is an eagle, a symbol of the god Jupiter and so we quickly realize that Augustus has close ties to the gods. Augustus is depicted as a heroic semi-nude, a convention usually reserved for deities. Augustus is not only stating that he has connections to gods, he is stating that he is also god-like.

Figure (PageIndex<61>): Roma and Augustus (detail), Dioskourides, Gemma Augustea, 9 &ndash 12 C.E., 19 x 23 cm, double-layered sardonyx with gold, gold-plated silver (Kunsthistorisches Museum Vienna)

Two other historical figures accompany Augustus in the upper register. At the far left is Tiberius, who will eventually succeed Augustus on the throne. To the right of Tiberius, standing in front of a chariot, is the young Germanicus, another member of Augustus&rsquo family and a potential heir to the throne. Clearly the Gemma Augustea is making Augustus&rsquo dynastic message clear: he hopes that Tiberius or Germanicus will succeed him after he dies.

Figure (PageIndex<62>): Tiberius and Germanicus (detail), Dioskourides, Gemma Augustea, 9 &ndash 12 C.E., 19 x 23 cm, double-layered sardonyx with gold, gold-plated silver (Kunsthistorisches Museum Vienna)

Interspersed amongst the three historical figures of the upper register are deities and personifications. Directly behind Tiberius is winged Victory. Behind Augustus is Oikoumene, the personification of the civilized world, who places a corona civica (civic crown) on the emperor&rsquos head. In the Roman Empire, it was a great honor to be awarded the civic crown as it was only given to someone who had saved Roman citizens from an enemy (and Augustus had certainly done just that by rescuing Romans from civil war). Oceanus, the personification of the oceans, sits on the far right. Finally, Tellus Italiae, the mother earth goddess and personification of Italy, sits with her two chubby children and holds a cornucopia.

Pax Romana

What does the top register mean, with its grouping of mortals, deities, and personifications? In short, everything praises Augustus. The emperor expresses his domination throughout the Roman Empire and his greatest accomplishment, the pacification of the Roman world, which resulted in fertility and prosperity. Augustus&rsquo peace and dominion will spread not only throughout the city of Rome (represented by the goddess Roma), but also to all of Italy (represented by Tellus Italiae) and throughout the entire civilized world (symbolized by Oikoumene). And as to Tiberius and Germanicus, Augustus&rsquo potential heirs, either will continue the peace and prosperity established by Augustus.

Figure (PageIndex<63>): Lower register (detail), Dioskourides, Gemma Augustea, 9 &ndash 12 C.E., 19 x 23 cm, double-layered sardonyx with gold, gold-plated silver (Kunsthistorisches Museum Vienna)

The lower register is significantly smaller than the upper, but it nevertheless has plenty of figures in its two scenes, both of which show captive barbarians and victorious Romans. At the left, Roman soldiers raise a trophy while degraded and humiliated barbarians sit at their feet. At the right is a similar scene, with barbarians being brought into submission by Roman soldiers. While the upper register focuses on peace, the lower register represents the wars that established and maintained peace throughout the Roman Empire.

Figure (PageIndex<64>): Roman soldiers and barbarians detail), Dioskourides, Gemma Augustea, 9 &ndash 12 C.E., 19 x 23 cm, double-layered sardonyx with gold, gold-plated silver (Kunsthistorisches Museum Vienna)

So even though the Gemma Augustea is a work of private art, the cameo nevertheless offers a political message and thus serves a purpose similar to public art. The Gemma proclaimed Augustus&rsquos greatest accomplishment, the Pax Romana, his military victories, his connections to the gods and his god-like status, and his hopes for dynastic succession.

Figure (PageIndex<65>): Dr. Beth Harris viewing the Gemma Augustea (for scale)

Additional resources:

Smarthistory images for teaching and learning:

Figure (PageIndex<66>): More Smarthistory images&hellip

The art of gem carving

Watch a modern artist engrave a precious gemstone using the techniques of the ancients.

Video (PageIndex<6>): Video from the J. Paul Getty Museum

Smarthistory images for teaching and learning:

Figure (PageIndex<67>): More Smarthistory images&hellip

Preparations for a Sacrifice

Animal sacrifice played an important role in ancient Roman religion, but what was involved in the preparation?

An animal sacrifice

The scene depicts a group of four males and a bull preparing for a sacrifice. The bull, bedecked in finery&mdashincluding its pelta-shaped frontalia&mdashis the intended victim. One attendant (a tibicen) provides music by playing the flute (tibia), two others hold the bull, and the fourth is perhaps the officiant who will conduct the ceremony. The latter figure, wearing a toga, stands at the viewer&rsquos far left, looking toward the sacrificing priests.

Figure (PageIndex<68>): Preparations for a Sacrifice, fragment from an architectural relief, c. mid-first century C.E., marble, 172 x 211 cm / 67¾ x 83⅛ inches (Musée du Louvre, Paris) [note: the date for this relief from the Louvre&rsquos website&mdashbeginning of the second century C.E.&mdashis at odds with the Louvre&rsquos publication of its catalog, Roman Art from the Louvre (2009) and given the arguments of Koeppel and Torelli, the assignment of a date in the second or third quarter of the first century C.E. is more likely]

Public sacrifices such as the one depicted in this relief played a major role in the Roman state religion. The animal sacrifice itself served multiple functions, chief among them honoring the divinity in question, but also providing a context within which ritual communal feasting could take place after the event. These communal feasts provided valuable nutrition to city dwellers and served to reinforce community ties within the locus of the sanctuary.

Figure (PageIndex<69>): Ox (detail), Preparations for a Sacrifice, fragment from an architectural relief, c. mid-first century C.E., marble, 172 x 211 cm / 67¾ x 83⅛ inches (Musée du Louvre, Paris)

The scene is set against a sculpted background that depicts a Corinthian temple (to the left) and a distyle building (to the right) that has two Aeolian capitals flanking a double door this latter façade is decorated with a laurel garland.

The temple&rsquos pediment (see image below) includes depictions of various Roman ritual equipment including the aspergillum (for sprinkling sacred water), simpulum (a ritual ladle for libations), lituus (the curved wand of a religious official known as an augur), and an apex (a flamen&rsquos hat). Such a background serves not only to situate the main scene but also to add realism and contextualization to these activities as they took place within the city of Rome.

Figure (PageIndex<70>): Pediment (detail), Preparations for a Sacrifice, fragment from an architectural relief, c. mid-first century C.E., marble, 172 x 211 cm / 67¾ x 83⅛ inches (Musée du Louvre, Paris)

As we look closely, it&rsquos important to keep in mind that the relief has been heavily restored&mdashwith art restorers adding elements to replace those that had been lost. Archival records suggest that the restorations were carried out by the sculptor Egidio Moretti in 1635, when the relief was a part of the collection of Asdrubale Mattei. The main restored elements are the heads of the two sacrificial priests, as well as the beard of the togate man. Also restored are the hands and the flute of the musician, the right portion of the bull&rsquos frontalia, the bull&rsquos muzzle, and the raised arm of the priest nearest to the bull. These restorations must all be considered to be conjectural.

Chronology

This fragmentary historical relief comes from Rome but unfortunately lacks a secure findspot (the relief was in the possession of the Mattei family when it was purchased by the Louvre in 1884). Objects such as this one&mdashwhich was long ago removed from its archaeological context&mdashare incredibly difficult to date.

Based on comparative stylistic analysis, the relief has been dated by some scholars to the beginning of Hadrian&rsquos reign (117-138 C.E.), based upon its supposed similarity to the so-called adventus relief of Hadrian (now in the Capitoline Museums). If this reading is correct, the setting for the relief is the forecourt of the Temple of Concord (a temple in the Roman Forum), although this assignment is based on an undocumented impression that the relief&rsquos findspot was in or near the Forum of Trajan. This is an important reminder that stylistic dating is subjective and often inaccurate.

Figure (PageIndex<71>): Ara Pietatis, cast of the Della Valle-Medici slab, detail with scene of sacrifice before the temple of Mars Ultor, 43 C.E., marble, 3 feet, 9 inches high (original in the Villa Medici, Rome)

An alternative and more compelling argument promoted by G. Koeppel called for an earlier dating of the relief. Koeppel argued that the most apt stylistic comparison is a fragment of a relief from the Ara Pietatis Augustae (the Altar of Augustuan Piety, a Julio-Claudian monument from Rome&rsquos Campus Martius, image above), which would place the date of the Louvre relief either at the close of Claudius&rsquo reign (41-54 C.E.) or at the beginning of Nero&rsquos reign (54-68 C.E.). Koeppel based his argument on a comparison of the architectural background visible in both reliefs, as well as on the stylization of the bull&rsquos head in both reliefs.

Figure (PageIndex<72>): Architecture (detail), Preparations for a Sacrifice, fragment from an architectural relief, c. mid-first century C.E., marble, 172 x 211 cm / 67¾ x 83⅛ inches (Musée du Louvre, Paris)

Mario Torelli posits that the buildings in the background of the Louvre relief should be identified as the house of Gnaeus Domitius Ahenobarbus (the father of the emperor Nero), at right, and, at left, Aedes Penatium, a temple once located on the Velia in Rome.

Context: historical art

It is clear that the creation of historical art forms&mdashmeaning those that aim to encapsulate and document actual events in a permanent medium&mdashstands out as a key achievement within the vast corpus of Roman art. As a medium, historical relief sculpture defines public art of the Roman imperial period. These reliefs, most often carefully composed and well executed, capture the Roman interest in detailed depictions of actual events that had transpired. One clear outcome of creating such a corpus of sculpture is the creation (and reinforcement) of communal memories that served not only to remind the human participants and witnesses of things that they had seen but also to serve as a cohesive agent, binding together the constituent members to the body of the community.

The celebratory element of reliefs of this type remind viewers of communal rituals (in which some of them may well have participated) that occurred in the city of Rome on a regular basis, manifesting an interchange between state ritual and the urban populace. These reliefs also serve a didactic function, capturing snapshots, of a sort, to reflect the traditions, customs, and iconography of the Roman culture. In their hyper-detailed nature they are not only beautiful artifacts to behold today, but they also encode important documentary evidence that aids in our understanding of details large and small related to the Roman civilization.

Additional resources:

D. E. E. Kleiner, Roman Sculpture (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1994).

G. M. Koeppel, &ldquoThe Grand Pictorial Tradition of Roman Historical Representation during the Early Empire,&rdquo Aufstieg und Niedergang der römischen Welt II.12.1 (1982), pp. 507-535.

G. M. Koeppel, &ldquoOfficial State Reliefs of the City of Rome in the Imperial Age: a Bibliography,&rdquo Aufstieg und Niedergang der römischen Welt II.12.1 (1982), pp. 477-506.

G. M. Koeppel, &ldquoDie historichen Reliefs der römischen Kaiserzeit I: Stadtrömische Denkmäler unbekannter Bauzugehörigkeit aus augusteischer und julisch-claudischer Zeit,&rdquo Bonner Jahrbücher 183 (1983), pp. 61-144.

G. M. Koeppel, &ldquoThe Role of Pictorial Models in the Creation of the Historical Relief during the Age of Augustus,&rdquo in The Age of Augustus, edited by R. Winkes (Providence RI: Center for Old World Archaeology and Art, Brown University, 1985), pp. 89-106.

D. Roger and C. Giroire, Roman Art from the Louvre (Hudson Hills Press, 2009).

I. S. Ryberg, Rites of the State Religion in Roman Art (Rome: American Academy in Rome, 1955).

M. Torelli, Typology and Structure of Roman Historical Reliefs (Thomas Spencer Jerome Lectures) (Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 1982).

Portrait of Vespasian

Figure (PageIndex<73>): Head from a marble statue of Vespasian, 70-80 C.E., marble, 45 cm high, from Carthage, northern Africa © Trustees of the British Museum

In ancient Rome, official portraits were an extremely important way for emperors to reach out to their subjects, and their public image was defined by them. As hundreds of surviving imperial statues show, there were only three ways in which the emperor could officially be represented: in the battle dress of a general in a toga, the Roman state civilian costume or nude, likened to a god. These styles powerfully and effectively evoked the emperor&rsquos role as commander-in-chief, magistrate or priest, and finally as the ultimate embodiment of divine providence.

Portrait of the emperor: A soldier and a wit

This naturalistic portrait of the emperor Vespasian (reigned 69-79 C.E.) clearly shows the lined complexion of this battle-hardened emperor, and also the curious &lsquostrained expression&rsquo which the Roman writer Suetonius said he had at all times. The loss of the nose is characteristic of the damage often suffered by ancient statues, either through deliberate mutilation or through falling or being toppled from their base.

Figure (PageIndex<74>): Relief depicting a triumphal procession into Rome with loot from the temple in Jerusalem, c. 81 C.E., panel in the passageway, Arch of Titus, marble, 6&rsquo-7&rdquo high, Via Sacra, Rome

Vespasian was born in the Roman town of Reate (Rieti), about forty miles (sixty-five kilometers) north-west of Rome in the Sabine Hills. Vespasian distinguished himself in military campaigns in Britain and later became a trusted aide of the emperor Nero. Together with one of his sons, Titus, Vespasian conquered Judaea in 75 C.E. and celebrated with a magnificent triumphal procession through Rome. Part of the event, in particular the displaying of the seven-branched candlestick or &ldquoMenorah&rdquo from the Temple at Jerusalem, is shown on the Arch of Titus, in Rome (above). The proceeds from the conquest of Judaea provided funds for the building of the Colosseum and other famous buildings in Rome.

Vespasian was known for his wit as well as his military skills. When, during one of his attempts to boost the treasury, Vespasian raised a tax on public urinals. Titus complained that this was below imperial dignity. Vespasian is said to have held out a handful of coins from the new tax and said &ldquoNow, do these smell any different?&rdquo Even on his death bed Vespasian&rsquos wit did not desert him. He was perhaps parodying the idea of the deification of emperors, when he said &ldquoOh dear, I think I&rsquom becoming a god.&rdquo

Roman portrait sculptures

Portrait sculptures are one of the great legacies of Roman art. Busts and statues portraying men, women and children from most ranks of society were set up in houses, tombs and public buildings throughout the Roman Empire. Sculptures of emperors and magistrates were often thought to embody personal authority, whereas many of the portraits representing private citizens were intended as memorials to the dead.

Suggested readings:

S. Walker, Greek and Roman portraits (London, The British Museum Press, 1995).

S. Walker, Roman art (London, 1991).

B. Levick, Vespasian (Routledge, 1999).

© Trustees of the British Museum

The Colosseum

Smarthistory images for teaching and learning:

Figure (PageIndex<75>): More Smarthistory images&hellip

The Arch of Titus

At the end of a Roman triumph, the defeated general was murdered. The victim was marched under this triumphal arch.

Video (PageIndex<8>): Relief panel with The Spoils of Jerusalem Being Brought into Rome, Arch of Titus, Rome, after 81 C.E., marble, 7&rsquo10&rdquo high

The Roman triumph

The Roman triumph was an ancient martial tradition&mdasha parade so riotous that its symbolic culmination involved catapulting the victorious general (triumphator) to quasi-divine status for a single, heady day. The Romans marked his status by staining his face red using the mineral pigment cinnabar (Jupiter&rsquos countenance was said to have the same ruddy hue).

The Romans traced the traditions of the triumph back to their own beginnings. Rome&rsquos legendary founder, Romulus, was the first to celebrate the rite when he defeated and killed Acron, the king of Caenina.

Victory in Judea

Figure (PageIndex<76>): Sir Lawrence Alma-Tadema, The Triumph of Titus: AD 71, The Flavians, 1835 oil on panel, 44.3 x 29 cm (The Walters Art Museum) &ldquoThe artist shows Titus returning to Rome in triumph following his capture of Jerusalem&hellip.His father, Emperor Vespasian&hellipleads the procession. Titus comes next, holding the hand of his daughter, Julia, who turns to address her father&rsquos younger brother and successor, Domitian&hellipAlma-Tadema depicted these events by drawing on classical sources&hellipand on the latest 19th-century scholarship regarding everyday life in Rome.&rdquo (source)

In the summer of 71 C.E. the Roman emperor Vespasian and Titus, his eldest son, had quelled a dangerous revolt in the Roman province of Judea and returned to Rome to celebrate this major accomplishment. Not only that, but the Flavian dynasty (Vespasian and his two sons Titus and Domitian) had succeeded in winning the throne during the year 69 C.E.&mdasha time of bloody civil turmoil known as the &ldquoYear of the Four Emperors.&rdquo

Figure (PageIndex<77>): Judaea Capta Sesterti (Roman coin) with portrait of Titus (left) and a personification of Judea, captured (right) (photo: copyright © David Hendin, used by permission)

A great deal was at stake for Vespasian and Titus, both relative political newcomers from a family line (Flavius) that was not particularly illustrious. The honor of the triumph was accorded to them jointly, and the spectacle (as described by Flavius Josephus in his text known as The Jewish War) rivaled anything that Rome had ever seen before: spoils, prisoners, pictorial narratives in abundance. All this was meant to awe the spectators and to transport the viewers to the battlefields of the war in the east. But the ritual of the triumph, its parade&mdasheven the semi-divine status accorded the triumphator&mdashwas ephemeral. For this reason, the later construction of permanent monuments (like the Arch of Titus) served to make an impact on the urban landscape (and the collective memory of city dwellers) that lasted far longer than the events of the day itself.

Figure (PageIndex<78>): Arch of Titus and the Colosseum, Rome (photo: Steven Zucker, CC BY-NC-SA 2.0)

The tradition of triumphal monuments connects the Flavians to the traditions of the Roman Republic. Early monuments included columns&mdashfor instance the rostrate column (columna rostrata)of Caius Duilius (c. 260 B.C.E.)&mdashand the early triumphal arch prototype known as the fornix Fabianus erected in the Forum Romanum by Q. Fabius Allobrogicus in 121 B.C.E. The emperor Augustus continued the use of the triumphal arch, even though he restructured the institution of the triumph itself. Since the Flavians were relative newcomers to the Roman power structure, they needed as much legitimization as they could find, and thus participating in the time-honored traditions of the triumph and its stock monuments made a good deal of sense.

Topography and the triumph

Figure (PageIndex<79>): View across the Roman Forum (Forum Romanum) to the Arch of Titus (photo: Steven Zucker, CC BY-NC-SA 2.0)

The Arch of Titus is located in Summa Sacra Via, the highest point of the Sacra Via, Rome&rsquos &ldquoSacred Way&rdquo that served as its main processional street. Furthemore, the Arch of Titus commands a key point along the triumphal route (via Triumphalis)&mdashone that visually links the valley of the Flavian amphitheater (known to us as the Colosseum) to the valley of the Forum Romanum and the Capitoline Hill beyond. Many triumphal parades had passed along this route for many centuries, thus the choice to place a permanent triumphal monument astride the route was not accidental but, rather, deliberately evocative of the fact that the triumph as a ritual both created and reinforced collective memory for Romans. This arch, built as an honorific monument, honored Titus posthumously and was a project executed by his younger brother and imperial successor, Domitian (emperor, 81-96 C.E.). Another arch dedicated to Titus, triumphal in its nature, was located in the valley of the Circus Maximus&mdashbut this arch only survives in the form of scattered sculptural fragments and a Medieval transcription of its dedicatory inscription. Recent archaeological excavations (2015) in the Circus Maximus have revealed previously unknown remains of this &ldquolost&rdquo arch, including elements of its foundations.

The attic inscription

Figure (PageIndex<80>): Attic inscription, Arch of Titus, after 81 C.E., Rome (photo: Dr. Steven Fine, used by permission)

The surviving ancient attic inscription (above) records the dedication of the monument to Titus. Given that Titus is identified as having been deified (divus), we learn that the monument&rsquos completion can only have occurred after Titus&rsquo death in September of 81 C.E.

The text of the attic inscription reads:

SENATVS
POPVLVSQVE·ROMANVS
DIVO·TITO·DIVI·VESPASIANI·F(ILIO)
VESPASIANO·AVGVSTO (CIL 6.945)

The Senate and the Roman people (dedicate this) to the deified Titus Vespasian Augustus, son of the deified Vespasian

The inscription makes the dedication a public one&mdashundertaken on the part of the Senate and the Roman People (Senatus Populusque Romanus), and reminds viewers of Titus&rsquo link to his likewise deified father, Vespasian, who had died in 79 C.E. This dedication is an example of shrewd power politics on the part of the Emperor Domitian&mdashhe had been too young to take part in the military glory enjoyed by his father and brother. Perhaps he sought to bask in the generally favorable public opinion they enjoyed as he himself made the transition to power.

Relief sculpture

Figure (PageIndex<81>): View of the vault of the arch&rsquos passageway, with a relief of the apotheosis of Titus (photo: Dr. Steven Fine, used by permission)

Two panel reliefs flank the single passageway of the arch, and a third adorns the vault (the vault relief is above). The subject matter of the flanking reliefs draws upon the 71 C.E. triumph of Vespasian and Titus, depicting key triumphal episodes following the fall of Jerusalem. In one scene (below) Romans carry spoils from the Temple in Jerusalem, including a Menorah, sacred trumpets and the showbread table. Recent studies have shown these items were painted with yellow ochre.

Figure (PageIndex<82>): Relief panel showing The Spoils of Jerusalem being brought into Rome, Arch of Titus, Rome, after 81 C.E., marble, 7 feet,10 inches high (photo: Steven Zucker, CC BY-NC-SA 2.0)

The triumph panel opposite depicts Titus in a triumphal four-horse chariot (quadriga) followed closely by the goddess of Victory (Victoria), preceded by official attendants known as lictors, and accompanied by symbolic representations (genii) of the Senate, the Roman people, and Virtus (manly virtue) (below).

Figure (PageIndex<83>): Relief panel showing Titus in a triumphal four-horse chariot, Arch of Titus, Rome, after 81 C.E., marble, 7 feet,10 inches high (photo: Steven Zucker, CC BY-NC-SA 2.0)

Since the triumphal parade would have passed through the very spot on which the arch was constructed, these images serve as powerful evocations of collective memories shared and held by the Roman people. The depiction in the reliefs echoes the riotous parade described by Flavius Josephus. The program of Flavian architecture largely transformed the physical landscape of Rome this program was replete with visual cues and reminders of Flavian success, all of which stemmed from and centered around the great triumph at the culmination of the Jewish War.

Restoration and current state

Figure (PageIndex<84>): Canaletto, The Arch of Titus in Rome, 1742-44, oil on canvas, 38 x 28 cm (Galleria dell&rsquoAccademia Carrara, Bergamo)

During the eleventh century the arch was incorporated into a fortress built by the Frangipani family in Rome, resulting in damage to the panel reliefs that is still visible today. In 1821, during the pontificate of Pope Pius VII, Giuseppe Valadier undertook a major restoration of the surviving structure. In order to identify those portions that had been restored, Valadier employed travertine as opposed to the original marble. The western side of the attic received a new inscription at the time of this restoration. Canaletto&rsquos famous painting of the arch grants a view of the monument&rsquos condition prior to Valadier&rsquos restoration.

Influence

The Arch of Titus has long provided a source of artistic inspiration. Leon Battista Alberti was inspired by its form as he designed the facade of the basilica of Sant&rsquoAndrea in Mantua, Italy, after 1472. The Arch of Titus has inspired many modern commemorative arches, notably the Arc de Triomphe in Paris (1806), Stanford White&rsquos Arch in Washington Square Park in New York City (1892), the United States National Memorial Arch in Valley Forge National Historical Park designed by Paul Philippe Cret (1917), and Edward Lutyens&rsquo India Gate in New Delhi (1921).

Figure (PageIndex<85>): Paul Philippe Cret, The National Memorial Arch In Valley Forge Park in Pennsylvania, erected 1917

Additional resources:

Mary Beard, The Roman Triumph (Cambridge, Mass.: Belknap, 2009).

A. J. Boyle and W. J. Dominik, Flavian Rome: culture, image, text (Leiden: E. J. Brill, 2003).

F. Coarelli, Divus Vespasianus. Il Bimillenario dei Flavi(Milan: Electa, 2009)

R. H. Darwall-Smith, Emperors and Architecture: a Study of Flavian Rome (Latomus, 1996).

J. C. Edmondson, S. Mason, and J. B. Rives, Flavius Josephus and Flavian Rome (New York: Oxford University Press, 2005).

R. Ross Holloway, &ldquoSome Remarks on the Arch of Titus,&rdquo L&rsquoantiquité classique 56 (1987) pp. 183-191.

M. Pfanner, Der Titusbogen (Mainz: P. von Zabern, 1983).

L. Roman, &ldquoMartial and the City of Rome.&rdquo The Journal of Roman Studies 100 (2010) pp. 1-30.

H. S. Versnel, Triumphus: an inquiry into the origin, development and meaning of the Roman triumph (Leiden: E. J. Brill, 1970).

L. Yarden, The spoils of Jerusalem on the Arch of Titus: a re-investigation (Stockholm : Svenska Institutet i Rom Göteborg : Distributor, P. Åströms, 1991).

Smarthistory images for teaching and learning:

Figure (PageIndex<86>): More Smarthistory images&hellip

The Spoils of Jerusalem, Arch of Titus

The emperor Titus sacked the temple in Jerusalem and looted its most holy treasures.

Video (PageIndex<8>): Relief panel with The Spoils of Jerusalem Being Brought into Rome, Arch of Titus, Rome, after 81 C.E., marble, 7&rsquo10&rdquo high

Smarthistory images for teaching and learning:

Figure (PageIndex<87>): More Smarthistory images&hellip

Silver shekel of the Second Jewish Revolt

This silver coin shows how, in an act of defiance against Roman rule, the Jewish population in the province of Judaea over-struck portraits of the Emperor Hadrian with their own symbols.

Figure (PageIndex<88>): Silver shekel of the Second Jewish Revolt, struck over a denarius of the Emperor Hadrian, c. 133-135 C.E., from Judaea, Palestine © Trustees of the British Museum

Rebellion against Rome

Jerusalem had been destroyed by Roman forces in 70 C.E. and the Roman authorities prevented the Jews from rebuilding their temple, which was the focal point of their religious and cultural identity. Moreover, Hadrian decided to re-found Jerusalem as a Roman colony named Aelia Capitolina

This and other measures, such as banning circumcision, prompted the Jews to rise against Rome under their charismatic leader Simon Bar Kokhba, an assumed name, meaning &ldquoSon of the Star&rdquo (a reference to his divine claim to leadership). The Roman forces were taken by surprise and suffered heavy casualties.

The rebels established their own rule in the territory they held and Bar Kokhba took the title &ldquoPrince of Israel&rdquo (nsy&rsquo Ysr&rsquol). As well as over-striking Roman coins like this one, they minted their own with highly symbolic and deeply emotive motifs referring to the destroyed Temple of Jerusalem and the rituals associated with it. A new era of &ldquoRedemption&rdquo or &ldquoFreedom of Israel&rdquo was declared. Documents dated &ldquoYears One to Four&rdquo survive and cover the period from March/April 132 C.E. to the time when the Romans re-established control in the autumn of 135 C.E.

© Trustees of the British Museum

Portrait Bust of a Flavian Woman (Fonseca Bust)

Is this delicate female portrait what we think? Take part in a discussion of a masterpiece we know little about.

Part 1:

Video (PageIndex<9>): Portrait Bust of a Flavian Woman (Fonseca Bust), from Rome, early 2nd century C.E., marble, 63 cm (Capitoline Museums), Part 1 of 2Speakers: Dr. Steven Zucker and Dr. Beth Harris

Part 2:

Video (PageIndex<10>): Portrait Bust of a Flavian Woman (Fonseca bust), early 2nd century C.E., marble, 63 inches high (Capitoline Museum, Rome), part 2 of 2
Speakers: Dr. Elizabeth Marlowe and Dr. Beth Harris

Additional resources:

Elizabeth Marlowe, Shaky Ground: Context, Connoisseurship and the History of Roman Art (Bloomsbury Academic, 2013)

Smarthistory images for teaching and learning:

Figure (PageIndex<89>): More Smarthistory images&hellip

The Forum and Markets of Trajan

Trajan tasked his architect with moving an entire hill to make room for this extravagant public space.

Video (PageIndex<11>): Apollodorus of Damascus, The Forum of Trajan, dedicated 112 C.E., Rome

Video (PageIndex<12>): Apollodorus of Damascus, The Markets of Trajan, 112 C.E., Rome

An emperor worth celebrating

Marcus Ulpius Traianus, now commonly referred to as Trajan, reigned as Rome&rsquos emperor from 98 until 117 C.E. A military man, Trajan was born of mixed stock&mdashpart Italic, part Hispanic&mdashinto the gens Ulpia (the Ulpian family) in the Roman province of Hispania Baetica (modern Spain) and enjoyed a career that catapulted him to the heights of popularity, earning him an enduring reputation as a &ldquogood emperor.&rdquo

Trajan was the first in a line of adoptive emperors that concluded with Marcus Aurelius. These emperors were chosen for the &ldquojob&rdquo based not on bloodlines, but on their suitability for rule most of them were raised with this role in mind from their youth. This period is often regarded as the height of the Roman empire&rsquos prosperity and stability. The ancient Romans were so fond of Trajan that they officially bestowed upon him the epithetical title optimus princeps or &ldquothe best first-citizen.&rdquo It is safe to say that the Romans felt Trajan was well worth celebrating&mdashand celebrate him they did. A massive architectural complex&mdashreferred to as the Forum of Trajan (Latin: Forum Traiani or, less commonly, Forum Ulpium) was devoted to Trajan&rsquos career and, in particular, his great military successes in his wars against Dacia (now Romania).

Unique under the heavens

The Forum of Trajan was the final, and largest, of Rome&rsquos complex of so-called &ldquoImperial fora&rdquo&mdashdubbed by at least one ancient writer as &ldquoa construction unique under the heavens&rdquo (Amm. Marc. 16.10.15). Fora is the Latin plural of forum&mdashmeaning a public, urban square for civic and ritual business. A series of Imperial fora, beginning with Iulius Caesar, had been built adjacent to the earlier Roman Forum by a series of emperors. The Forum of Trajan was inaugurated in 112 C.E., although construction may not have been complete, and was designed by the famed architect Apollodorus of Damascus.

Figrue (PageIndex<91>): View from the Markets of Trajan of the remains of the eastern exedra and the eastern portico of the main square of the Forum of Trajan, looking toward the Basilica Ulpia (in the upper left) (photo, CC BY-SA 3.0)

The Forum of Trajan is elegant&mdashit is rife with signs of top-level architecture and decoration. All of the structures, save the two libraries (which were built of brick), were built of stone. There is a great deal of exotic, imported marble and many statues, including gilded examples. The forum was composed of a main square (measuring c. 200 x 120 meters) that was flanked by porticoes (an extended, roofed colonnade), as well as by exedrae (semicircular, recessed spaces) on the eastern (above) and western sides.

Figure (PageIndex<92>): Plan of the Forum of Trajan. Note that the traditional site of the temple of the deified Trajan is shown, but is replaced by a shrine located at the southern side of the forum&rsquos main square (following R. Meneghini) (image: CC BY-SA 3.0, annotated by Smarthistory)

A contested element of the reconstruction of the forum complex is a temple dedicated to the deified Trajan (the deceased emperor had been declared a god). Traditional reconstructions place this temple behind the column, although a recent reconstruction favored by Dr. Roberto Meneghini does not agree with this conjecture, instead preferring to place a shrine to the deified Trajan at the southern end of the forum abutting the retaining wall of the neighboring Forum of Augustus. Scholars continue to debate the nature and position of this temple.

The main structure at the center of the forum complex is the massive Basilica Ulpia, and beside that stood two libraries that flanked the Column of Trajan, an honorific monument bearing an elaborate program of sculpted relief.

Figure (PageIndex<93>): Remains of the Basilica Ulpia (photo: Steven Zucker, CC BY-NC-SA 2.0)

Paved in white marble: The forum square (Area Fori)

The main square of the forum was once a vast space, screened by architecture on all sides and paved in white marble. Several rows of trees, and perhaps rows of statues, ran parallel to the porticoes. Entry to the forum square was from the south, by way of a triumphal arch surmounted by a statue of Trajan riding in a triumphal chariot. Although the arch itself is no longer extant, it is depicted on a coin issued c. 112-115 C.E. (below).

Figure (PageIndex<94>): Gold coin (aureus) struck at Rome c. 112-115 C.E. (19 mm, 7.13 g, 7h). The legend reads &ldquoIMP TRAIANO AVG GER DAC P M TR P COS VI P P (&ldquoTo the emperor Trajan Augustus Germanicus Dacicus, Pontifex Maximus, [holder of] tribunician power, in his sixth consulship, father of his country.&rdquo The coins depicts a laureate Trajan (draped, and cuirassed bust right) seen from behind on the observe side. On the reverse the Arcus Traiani of the Forum of Trajan is seen. This is presented as a hexastyle building facade, crowned by a frontal chariot drawn by six horses. Three figures stand to the left and right, while four statues occupy niches in the arches below. The reverse legend reads &ldquoFORVM TRAIAN[A]&rdquo (image)

The forum square (116 x 95 meters) has an overriding martial theme, reminding viewers and visitors that the forum was constructed from the proceeds (manubiae) of Trajan&rsquos successful military campaigns against the Dacians (101&ndash102, 105&ndash106 C.E.). The porticoes were decorated with statuary and military standards (official emblems of the legions), as described by the ancient author Aulus Gellius: &ldquoAll along the roof of the colonnades of the forum of Trajan gilded statues of horses and representations of military standards are placed, and underneath is written Ex manubiis [from the spoils of war] &hellip&rdquo (Attic Nights 13.25.1).

The decorative program also included statues of captured Dacian prisoners (left) and, it seems, statues of notable Roman statesmen and generals that were set in the intercolumnar spaces of the porticoes.

Figure (PageIndex<95>): Captured Dacian, 106-112 (Vatican Museum) (photo: Steven Zucker, CC BY-NC-SA 2.0)

At the center of the Forum square stood a bronze equestrian statue of Trajan, the Equus Traiani. While the statue itself does not survive, the occasion of a visit to Rome by Constantius II (in 357 C.E.) preserves a mention of the famous equestrian: &ldquoSo he [Constantius II] abandoned all hope of attempting anything like it, and declared that he would and could imitate simply Trajan&rsquos horse, which stands in the middle of the court with the emperor on its back.&rdquo (Ammianus Marcellinus 16.10.15) We also see the equestrian statue depicted on a silver denarius struck at Rome c. 112-114/5 C.E. (below).

Figure (PageIndex<96>): Silver coin, Denarius (19mm, 3.35 g, 7h), struck 112-114/115 C.E IMP TRAIANO AVG GER DAC P M TR P COS VI P P, laureate bust right, drapery on far shoulder S P Q R OPTIMO PRINCIPI, equestrian statue of Trajan facing left, holding spear and sword (or small Victory) (image)

The massive Basilica Ulpia

As an architectural type, the basilica is uniquely Roman and served various civic and juridical purposes. The habit of planners from the first century B.C.E. onwards had been to prefer to use the basilica as a framing device, so as to have it communicate with the flanks of a forum square. We see this in many cases, although with some variation. In the case of the Forum of Trajan the massive and monumental Basilica Ulpia is constructed at the northern edge of the open courtyard. It thus serves to bisect the complex, with the portico-lined courtyard lying to its east and the libraries and the Column of Trajan to its west.

Figure (PageIndex<97>): Remains of the Basilica Ulpia in the foreground, and the Column of Trajan in the middle ground (photo: Steven Zucker, CC BY-NC-SA 2.0)

The basilica is massive&mdashits overall length is some 169 meters and the interior nave is 25 meters wide. It is apsidal at both ends, with a raised central floor, and the main hall has a double surround of columns (96 in total) that were probably of white or yellow marble, in the Corinthian order. The basilica was also famous in antiquity for its gilded bronze roof tiles, as commented on by Pausanias, who remarked that the building was &ldquoworth seeing not only for its general beauty but especially for its roof made of bronze&rdquo (Description of Greece 5.12.6).

Figure (PageIndex<98>): Artist&rsquos view of exterior elevation (J. Gaudet, 1867)

The Markets of Trajan (dedicated c. 110 C.E.)

Figure (PageIndex<99>): Apollodorus of Damascus, The Markets of Trajan, 112 C.E. the Militia Tower is visible in the center, rising above the markets (photo: Va&scaronek Vinklát, CC BY-NC-SA 2.0)

Adjacent to the Forum of Trajan is a separate architectural complex attributed to Trajan that is commonly referred to as the Markets of Trajan. This multi-level commercial complex was built against the flank of the Quirinal Hill which had to be excavated for the purpose. The complex of the markets takes its planning cue from the eastern hemicycle of the Forum of Trajan. The ruins of the markets today preserve 170 rooms and the complex covers a space of approximately 110 by 150 meters its walls stood to 35 meters above the level of the pavement of the Forum of Trajan. The original extension is hard to ascertain, based in part upon subsequent re-use and construction in the Medieval period (and later). The archaeologist Corrado Ricci (1858-1934) cleared the ruins in the twentieth century, but the markets themselves have received comparatively less attention than the adjacent forum.

Figure (PageIndex<100>): Apollodorus of Damascus, The Markets of Trajan, 112 C.E. (photo: Steven Zucker CC BY-NC-SA 2.0)The function of the markets was mercantile&mdashindeed the markets may have been designed to relocate shops (tabernae) and offices that were displaced by the Trajanic building project. The ground floor offices (at the forum level) were likely occupied by cashiers of the imperial treasury (arcarii caesariani), while upper level rooms may been leased out or used by imperial officials associated with the grain dole (annona). Figure (PageIndex<101>): Apollodorus of Damascus, The Markets of Trajan (Market Hall), 112 C.E. (photo: Steven Zucker CC BY-NC-SA 2.0)

The great, vaulted market hall (above) is an ambitious and brilliant design&mdashjust as with the rest of the complex, reflecting the skills of the designer / architect who executed the project. The medieval Militia Tower (Torre delle Milizie ) (12th century) and the now-demolished convent of Santa Caterina a Magnanapoli utilized portions of the structure of the market&rsquos buildings.

Figure (PageIndex<102>): Plan of the Markets of Trajan (in relation to the Forum of Trajan)

The architect &ndash Apollodorus of Damascus

Figure (PageIndex<103>): Portrait considered to be that of Apollodorus of Damascus (Munich Glyptothek) (photo: Gun Powder Ma, CC BY-SA 3.0)

Apollodorus of Damascus was a military engineer and architect who was active during the first quarter of the second century C.E. He accompanied the emperor Trajan on his campaigns in Dacia and is famous for building a bridge across the Danube river that was both described by ancient authors and depicted in art. The relief from the Column of Trajan depicts the bridge in the background (see below). Built c. 105 C.E., the segmental arch bridge was the first across the lower Danube and allowed Roman soldiers to cross the river easily. Apollodorus, who is described as &ldquothe master-builder of the whole work&rdquo is credited with the project (Procopius, Buildings, 4.6.11-14 tr. H.B. Dewing). Upon return from the Dacian Wars, Apollodorus is thought to have been the architect behind the project that produced the Forum and Column of Trajan, as well as the adjacent markets. A textual tradition is preserved by Cassius Dio that has Apollodorus running afoul of (and being executed by) Hadrian, Trajan&rsquos successor, although it is unclear whether credence should be given to this story (Cassius Dio, Roman History, 69.4 tr. Cary).

Figure (PageIndex<104>): Relief from the Column of Trajan, Carrara marble, completed 113 C.E., showing the bridge in the background and in the foreground Trajan is shown sacrificing by the Danube river

Significance of the &ldquoconstruction unique under the heavens&rdquo

The Forum of Trajan earned a great deal of praise in antiquity&mdashand it has been the focus of scholarly study perhaps since 1536 when Pope Paul III ordered the first clearing of the area around the base of the Column of Trajan. Paul III would then protect the column itself in 1546 by appointing a caretaker to look after it. The seventeenth and eighteenth centuries saw various artists and architects produce renderings and plans of the forum and its monuments. Among the most famous of these are those of Dosio (c. 1569) and Etiénne Du Pérac (1575). In terms of public architecture in Imperial Rome, the Forum of Trajan complex is a crowning achievement in its vast monumentality. The execution of its sophisticated and elegant design surpassed all of its predecessors in the complex of forum spaces in the city. The value of vast public spaces in the city of Rome cannot be underestimated. For the average city dwellers accustomed to narrow, dim, crowded streets the soaring, the gleaming open space of the forum, bounded by elaborate architecture and sculpture, would have had a powerful psychological effect. The fact that the monuments glorified a revered leader also served to create and reinforce important ideological messages among the Romans. Overall the role of public architecture in the Roman city, and the Roman consciousness, is an important reminder of the ways in which Romans used built space to establish and perpetuate messages about identity and ideology.

Figure (PageIndex<105>): Vestigi delle antichita di Roma, Tiuoli, Pozzuolo et altri luochi, 1606 (Ægidio Sadeler engravings of reduced copies of Du Pérac&rsquos Vestigi dell&rsquoantichità di Roma) (Getty Research Institute)

The enduring ruins, in this case cleared initially by the excavations sponsored by the Fascist regime of Benito Mussolini, stand as strong, and stark, reminders of these Roman realities. Modern viewers still extract and reinforce ideas about identity based on looking at and visiting the ruins. Even with these ruins we still come away with an idea about Trajan&rsquos greatness and his martial accomplishments. We might, then, judge the architectural program to be a great success&mdashso successful that a great many of our own public monuments still operate on the basis of conventions established in antiquity.

Additional resources:

J. C. Anderson, Historical Topography of the Imperial Fora (Brussels: Latomus, 1984).

R. Chenault, &ldquoStatues of Senators in the Forum of Trajan and the Roman Forum in Late Antiquity,&rdquo The Journal of Roman Studies, vol. 102 (2012), pp. 103-132.

P. Gros, L&rsquoarchitecture romaine du début du 3e siècle av. J.-C. à la fin du Haut-Empire 1. Les monuments publics (Paris: Picard, 1996).

L. Lancaster, &ldquoBuilding Trajan&rsquos Markets,&rdquo American Journal of Archaeology 102.2 (Apr., 1998), pp. 283-308.

L. Lancaster, &ldquoBuilding Trajan&rsquos Markets 2: The Construction Process,&rdquo American Journal of Archaeology 104.4 (Oct., 2000), pp. 755-785.

R. Leone, et al. Fori imperiali: demolizione e scavi: fotografie, 1924-1940 (Milan: Electa, 2007).

W. L. MacDonald, The Architecture of the Roman Empire 2 vols. (New Haven : Yale University Press, 1982-1986).

R. Meneghini, L. Messa, and L. Ungaro, Il foro di Traiano (Rome: Fratelli Palombi, 1990).

R. Meneghini, Il Foro e i Mercati di Traiano: Roma (Rome: Istituto poligrafico e Zecca dello Stato, 1995).

J. E. Packer, K. L. Sarring, and R. M. Sheldon, &ldquoA New Excavation in Trajan&rsquos Forum,&rdquo American Journal of Archaeology 87.2 (Apr., 1983), pp. 165-172.

J. E. Packer, &ldquoThe West Library in the Forum of Trajan: The Architectural Problems and Some Solutions,&rdquo In Eius virtutis studiosi : classical and postclassical studies in memory of Frank Edward Brown (1908-1988) (Studies in the History of Art, Vol. 43, Symposium Papers XXII), edited by A. R. Scott and R. T. Scott, 420-444. (Washington D.C.: National Gallery of Art, 1993).

J. E. Packer, &ldquoTrajan&rsquos Forum again: the Column and the Temple of Trajan in the master plan attributed to Apollodorus(?),&rdquo Journal of Roman Archaeology 7 (January 1994) pp 163-182.

J. E. Packer, &ldquoReport from Rome: The Imperial Fora, a Retrospective,&rdquoAmerican Journal of Archaeology 101.2 (April 1997), pp. 307-330.

J. E. Packer, The Forum of Trajan in Rome: a study of the monuments. 2 v. (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1997).

J. E. Packer, The Forum of Trajan in Rome: a study of the monuments in brief (Berkeley: University of California Press, 2001).

J. E. Packer and J. Burge, &ldquoTemplum Divi Traiani Parthici et Plotinae: a debate with R. Meneghini,&rdquo Journal of Roman Archaeology(January 2003) pp. 103-136.

Platner, S. B. and T. Ashby. 1929. &ldquoForum Traiani.&rdquo In A Topographical Dictionary of Ancient Rome (Oxford: Clarendon Press) (Perseus Project)

L. Ungaro et al. The Museum of the Imperial Forums in Trajan&rsquos market (Milan: Electa, 2007).

P. H. von Blanckenhagen, &ldquoThe Imperial Fora,&rdquo Journal of the Society of Architectural Historians 13.4 (Dec., 1954), pp. 21-26.

A. Uggeri, Della Basilica Vlpia nel Foro traiano: istoria e ristaurazione agli amanti delle antichita romane (Rome, 1830) (viewable online via Arachne)

M. Waelkens, &ldquoFrom a Phrygian Quarry: The Provenance of the Statues of the Dacian Prisoners in Trajan&rsquos Forum at Rome,&rdquo American Journal of Archaeology 89.4 (Oct., 1985) pp. 641-653.

G. Wightman, &ldquoThe Imperial Fora of Rome: Some Design Considerations,&rdquo Journal of the Society of Architectural Historians 56.1 (March 1997) pp. 64-88.

Smarthistory images for teaching and learning:

Figure (PageIndex<106>): More Smarthistory images&hellip

Column of Trajan

Trajan expanded the Roman Empire to its greatest extent, celebrating his victories with this monumental column.

Figure (PageIndex<107>): Column of Trajan (as seen through the ruins of the Basilica Ulpia in the Forum of Trajan), Carrara marble, completed 113 C.E., Rome, dedicated to Emperor Trajan (Marcus Ulpius Nerva Traianus b. 53 , d. 117 C.E.) in honor of his victory over Dacia (now Romania) 101-02 and 105-06 C.E. (photo: Steven Zucker, CC BY-NC-SA 2.0)

The Triumph

The Triumph was a riotous military ritual celebrated by the Romans over the course of centuries&mdashwhenever their commander had won a spectacular victory. On the appointed day (or days) the city would be overflowing with crowds, pageantry, spoils, prisoners, depictions and souvenirs of foreign lands&mdashbut then, just as quickly as it began, the glorious tumult was over. The spectacles and the echoes of glory entrusted to the memory of those who had witnessed the event. Was the parade and its giant city-wide party enough to commemorate the glorious deeds of Rome&rsquos armies? Or should a more permanent form of commemoration be adopted? Being pragmatists, the Romans enlisted both means of commemoration&mdashthe ephemeral and the permanent. The Column of Trajan (dedicated in May of 113 C.E.) might be the crowning example of the inborn need to commemorate&mdashin more permanent form&mdashhistorical deeds that dominates the psyche of Roman art and artists.

Returning from Dacia triumphant&mdash100 days of celebrations

The emperor Trajan, who reigned from 98 &ndash 117 C.E., fought a series of campaigns known as the Dacian Wars. Dacia (modern Romania), was seen as a troublesome neighbor by the Romans and the Dacians were seen to pose a threat to the province of Moesia, along the Danube frontier. In addition Dacia was rich in natural resources (including gold), that were attractive to the Romans. The first campaign saw Trajan defeat the Dacian leader Decebalus in 101 C.E., after which the Dacians sought terms from the Romans. Renewed Dacian hostilities brought about the second Dacian War that concluded in 106 C.E. Trajan&rsquos victory was a substantial one&mdashhe declared over 100 days of official celebrations and the Romans exploited Dacia&rsquos natural wealth, while incorporating Dacia as an imperial province.

Figure (PageIndex<108>): Denarius (Roman coin), obverse: Trajan in profile reverse: Dacian seated right on pile of arms, his hands bound behind him, silver, c. 103-11 (Fitzwilliam Museum, Cambridge, CM.BU.240-R)

After the first Dacian war Trajan earned the honorary epithet &ldquoDacicus Maximus&rdquo (greatest Dacian) and a victory monument known as the Tropaeum Traiani (Trophy of Trajan) was built at Civitas Tropaensium (modern Adamclisi, Romania). Coins issued during Trajan&rsquos reign (as in the image above) depicted the defeated Dacia.

Iconography and themes

The iconographic scheme of the column illustrates Trajan&rsquos wars in Dacia. The lower half of the column corresponds to the first Dacian War (c. 101-102 C.E.), while the top half depicts the second Dacian War (c. 105-106 C.E.). The first narrative event shows Roman soldiers marching off to Dacia, while the final sequence of events portrays the suicide of the enemy leader, Decebalus, and the mopping up of Dacian prisoners by the Romans.

Figure (PageIndex<109>): The crossing of the Roman Army over the Danube River in the first Dacian War (the large figure is a personification of the Danube) (detail), Column of Trajan, dedicated 113 C.E., Rome (photo: Steven Zucker, CC BY-NC-SA 2.0)

The execution of the frieze is meticulous and the level of detail achieved is astonishing. While the column does not carry applied paint now, many scholars believe the frieze was initially painted. The sculptors took great care to provide settings for the scenes, including natural backgrounds, and mixed perspectival views to offer the maximum level of detail. Sometimes multiple perspectives are evident within a single scene. The overall, unifying theme is that of the Roman military campaigns in Dacia, but the details reveal additional, more subtle narrative threads.

One of the clear themes is the triumph of civilization (represented by the Romans) over its antithesis, the barbarian state (represented here by the Dacians). The Romans are orderly and uniform, the Dacians less so. The Romans are clean shaven, the Dacians are shaggy. The Romans avoid leggings, the Dacians wear leggings (like all good barbarians did&mdashat least those depicted by the Romans).

Figure (PageIndex<110>): &ldquoScene from the second Dacian War, the Dacians plan a new offensive and attack a Roman Fort and engage with Roman troops. Many Dacians, however, fall in the wake of a strong Roman counteroffensive,&rdquo (detail), Column of Trajan, dedicated 113 C.E., Rome (source for image and caption: Trajan&rsquos Column Website, Professor Roger B. Ulrich, Dartmouth College)

Combat scenes are frequent in the frieze. The detailed rendering provides a nearly unparalleled visual resource for studying the iconography of the Roman military, as well as for studying the actual equipment, weapons, and tactics. There is clear ethnic typing as well, as the Roman soldiers cannot be confused for Dacian soldiers, and vice versa.

Figure (PageIndex<111>): The Emperor (fourth from the lower right) oversees construction (detail), Column of Trajan, dedicated 113 C.E., (photo: Steven Zucker, CC BY-NC-SA 2.0)

The viewer also sees the Roman army doing other chores while not fighting. One notable activity is building. In numerous scenes the soldiers may be seen building and fortifying camps. All of the Roman edifices depicted are solid, regular, and well designed&mdashin stark contrast to the humble buildings of the Dacian world. Roman propaganda at work.

Figure (PageIndex<112>): Trajan and his fleet depart for Second Dacian War&mdashTrajan can be seen at the far left (detail), Column of Trajan, dedicated 113 C.E., detail, Column of Trajan, dedicated 113 C.E. (photo: Peter Reed, CC BY-NC-SA 2.0)

The emperor Trajan figures prominently in the frieze. Each time he appears, his position is commanding and the iconographic focus on his person is made clear. We see Trajan in various scenarios, including addressing his troops (ad locutio) and performing sacrifices. The fact that the figures in the scenes are focused on the figure of the emperor helps to draw the viewer&rsquos attention to him.

The base of the column eventually served as a tomb for Trajan&rsquos ashes. He died while returning from foreign campaigns in 117 C.E. and was granted this unusual honor, in keeping with the estimation of the Roman people who deemed him optimus princeps or &ldquothe best first citizen&rdquo.

Specifications of the Column and construction

Figure (PageIndex<113>): Column at Trajan, dedicated 113 C.E., plan, elevation, and section

The column itself is made from fine-grained Luna marble and stands to a height of 38.4 meters (c. 98 feet) atop a tall pedestal. The shaft of the column is composed of 19 drums of marble measuring c. 3.7 meters (11 feet) in diameter, weighing a total of c. 1,110 tons. The topmost drum weighs some 53 tons. A spiral staircase of 185 steps leads to the viewing platform atop the column. The helical sculptural frieze measures 190 meters in length (c. 625 feet) and wraps around the column 23 times. A total of 2,662 figures appear in the 155 scenes of the frieze, with Trajan himself featured in 58 scenes.

The construction of the Column of Trajan was a complex exercise of architectural design and engineering. As reconstructed by Lynne Lancaster, the execution of the column itself was an immense engineering challenge that required complex lifting devices and, no doubt, careful planning to execute successfully. Materials had to be acquired and transported to Rome, some across long distances. With the appropriate technology in place, the adept Roman architects could carry out the project. The successful completion of the column demonstrates the complex tasks that Roman architects could successfully complete.

Significance and influence

The Column of Trajan may be contextualized in a long line of Roman victory monuments, some of which honored specific military victories and thus may be termed &ldquotriumphal monuments&rdquo and others that generally honor a public career and are thus &ldquohonorific monuments&rdquo. Among the earliest examples of such permanent monuments at Rome is the rostrate column (column rostrata) that was erected in honor of a naval victory celebrated by Caius Duilius after the battle of Mylae in 260 B.C.E. (this column does not survive). During the Republican period, a rich tradition of celebratory monuments developed, best known through the fornices (honorific arches) and triumphal arches. This tradition was continued in the imperial period, with both triumphal and honorific arches being erected at Rome and in the the provinces.

Figure (PageIndex<114>): Gold aureus showing Trajan&rsquos Column, Roman, early 2nd century C.E. (The British Museum)

The idea of the honorific column was carried forward by other victorious leaders&mdashboth in the ancient and modern eras. In the Roman world immediate, derivative monuments that draw inspiration from the Column of Trajan include the Column of Marcus Aurelius (c. 193 C.E.) in Rome&rsquos Piazza Colonna, as well as monuments like the now-lost Column of Arcadius (c. 401 C.E.) and the Column of Justinian at Constantinople (c. 543 C.E.). The idea of the narrative frieze applied to the Column of Trajan proved influential in these other instances.

Figure (PageIndex<115>): Aegidius Sadeler, view of the column of Trajan, shown with its pedestal dug out from the earth, surrounded by buildings at the base of the Quirinal Hill, Rome, from the series &ldquoRuins of the antiquity of Rome, Tivoli, Pozzuoli, and other places,&rdquo 1606, etching and engraving, plate 31 (The Metropolitan Museum of Art)

Honorific or triumphal columns inspired by that of Trajan were also created in honor of more recent victories. The column honoring Admiral Horatio Nelson in London&rsquos Trafalgar Square (c. 1843) draws on the Roman tradition that included the Column of Trajan along with earlier, Republican monuments like the columna rostrata of Caius Duilius. The column dedicated to Napoleon I erected in the Place Vendôme in Paris (c. 1810) and the Washington Monument of Baltimore, Maryland (1829) both were directly inspired by the Column of Trajan.

Additional Resources:

M. Beckmann, &ldquoThe &ldquoColumnae Coc(h)lides&rdquo of Trajan and Marcus Aurelius,&rdquo Phoenix 56.3/4 (Autumn &ndash Winter, 2002) pp. 348-357.

F. Coarelli et al., The Column of Trajan (Rome: German Archaeological Institute, 2000).

G. A. T. Davies, &ldquoTopography and the Trajan Column.&rdquo Journal of Roman Studies 10 (1920), pp. 1-28.

G. A. T. Davies, &ldquoTrajan&rsquos First Dacian War,&rdquo Journal of Roman Studies 7 (1917), pp. 74-97.

P. Davies, &ldquoThe Politics of Perpetuation: Trajan&rsquos Column and the Art of Commemoration,&rdquo American Journal of Archaeology 101.1 (1997), pp. 41-65.

M. Henig, ed., Architecture and Architectural Sculpture in the Roman Empire (Oxford: Oxford University Committee for Archaeology : Distributed by Oxbow Books, 1990).

T. Hölscher, The Language of Images in Roman Art, translated by A. Snodgrass and Annemarie Künzl-Snodgrass (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2004).

N. Kampen, &ldquoLooking at Gender: The Column of Trajan and Roman Historical Relief,&rdquo in Domna Stanton and Abigail Stewart, eds. Feminisms in the Academy (Ann Arbor 1995), pp. 46-73.

G. M. Koeppel, &ldquoOfficial State Reliefs of the City of Rome in the Imperial Age. A Bibliography,&rdquo Aufstieg und Niedergang der römischen Welt II,12,1 (1982), pp. 477-506.

G. M. Koeppel, &ldquoDie historischen Reliefs der römischen Kaiserzeit VIII, Der Fries der Trajanssäule in Rom, Teil 1: Der Erste Dakische Krieg, Szenen I-LXXVIII,&rdquo Bonner Jahrbücher (1991) 191, pp. 135-197.

G. M. Koeppel, &ldquoDie historischen Reliefs der römischen Kaiserzeit IX, Der Fries der Trajanssäule in Rom, Teil 2: Der Zweite Dakische Krieg, Szenen LXXXIX-CLV,&rdquo Bonner Jahrbücher 192 (1992), pp. 61-121.

G. M. Koeppel, &ldquoThe Column of Trajan: Narrative Technique and the Image of the Emperor,&rdquo in Sage and emperor: Plutarch, Greek intellectuals, and Roman power in the time of Trajan (98-117 A.D.), edited by Philip A. Stadter and Luc Van der Stockt (Leuven: Leuven University Press, 2002), pp. 245-258.

Lynne Lancaster, &ldquoBuilding Trajan&rsquos Column,&rdquo American Journal of Archaeology, 103.3 (Jul., 1999) pp. 419-439.

E. La Rocca, &ldquoTemplum Traiani et columna cochlis,&rdquo Mitteilungen des Deutschen Archäologischen Instituts Römische Abteilung 111 (2004), pp. 193-238.

F. Lepper and S. Frere, Trajan&rsquos Column: A New Edition of the Cichorius Plates (Gloucester U.K.: Alan Sutton, 1988).

S. Maffei, 1995. &ldquoForum Traiani: Columna,&rdquo in Lexicon Topographicum Urbis Romae, vol. 2, edited by E.M. Steinby (Rome: Quasar, 1995), pp. 356-9.

C. G. Malacrino, &ldquoImmagini e narrazioni. La Colonna Traiana e le sue scene di cantiere,&rdquo in Storia e narrazione. Retorica, memoria, immagini edited by G. Guidarelli and C.G. Malacrino (Milan: B. Mondadori, 2005), pp. 101-34.

A. Mau, &ldquoDie Inschrift der Trajanssäule,&rdquo Mitteilungen des Deutschen Archäologischen Instituts, Römische Abteilung 22 (1907), pp. 187-97. [accessible via Google Books].

J. E. Packer, &ldquoTrajan&rsquos Forum again: the Column and the Temple of Trajan in the master plan attributed at Apollodorus (?),&rdquo Journal of Roman Archaeology 7 (1994), pp. 163-82.

I. A. Richmond and M. Hassall, Trajan&rsquos Army on Trajan&rsquos Column ( London : British School at Rome, 1982).

L. Rossi and J.M.C. Toynbee, Trajan&rsquos Column and the Dacian Wars (Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1971).

E. Togo Salmon, &ldquoTrajan&rsquos Conquest of Dacia,&rdquo Transactions and Proceedings of the American Philological Association 67 (1936), pp. 83-105.

S. Settis et al., La Colonna Traiana (Turin: G. Einaudi, 1988).

H. Stuart-Jones, &ldquoThe Historical Interpretation of the Reliefs of Trajan&rsquos Column,&rdquo Papers of the British School at Rome 5 (1910), pp. 433-59.

E. Wolfram Thill, &ldquoCivilization under Construction: Depictions of Architecture on the Column of Trajan,&rdquo American Journal of Archaeology 114.1 (Jan., 2010), pp. 27-43.

M. Wilson Jones, &ldquoOne Hundred Feet and a Spiral Stair: Designing Trajan&rsquos Column,&rdquo Journal of Roman Archaeology 6 (1993) 23-38.

M. Wilson Jones, &ldquoTrajan&rsquos Column,&rdquo chapter 8 in Principles of Roman Architecture (New Haven: Yale University Press, 2000) pp. 161-176.

Smarthistory images for teaching and learning:

Figure (PageIndex<116>): More Smarthistory images&hellip

Temple of Portunus - Temple of Fortune in Rome

The Temple of Portunus is an ancient temple in Rome, Italy dedicated to the god Portunus in the city. The temple is believed to belong to Fortuna Virilis. The little temple is generally identified with Portumnus, the God of Doors and Harbours.

The Temple of Fortuna Virilis associates with 'Manly' or 'Virile' - the influence of making boys into men.

Temple of Portunus is from c. 120-80 B.C.E. meaning this temple church is more than 2000 years old.

The steps leading up to the enclosed space, has maintained the external architecture feature of columns that have been seen with for example the Acropolis, except in this building structure, people are guided to one entrance through one set of steps.

The temple was preserved and converted to a church in 872, when it was re-dedicated to Santa Maria Egyziaca (Saint Mary of Egypt). Looking at googlemaps, the building is surrounded by scaffolding and seems to be undergoing some work in this time.


"The Temple of Fortuna Virilis" in Isaac Ware, The Four Books of Andrea Palladio's Architecture, London, 1738.

Fortuna is equivalent to the Greek goddess Tyche, the goddess of fortune in Roman religion.


Fortuna governs the circle of the four stages of life, the Wheel of Fortune, in a manuscript of Carmina Burana.

It is in the Ionic order and located in the ancient Forum Boarium by the Tiber. The Temple site overlooked the Port Tiberinus at a sharp bend in the river from where Portunus watched over the vessels as they entered the city from Ostia.

'The 18th-century Temple of Harmony in Somerset, England is a folly based on the Temple of Portunus.'

The Olympic Flame that travels from ancient Greece to the location of the Olympic games is also known as the Flame of Harmony. In a time where there is still division between people, it is the divine plan to unite people in peace and harmony.

Ancient Rome and Rome are prevailing the times, with past and present being shown on the map in physical locations. This is evidence of history. New Rome is a mystery unfolding, that marry's past, present and future in context.

There is a big difference between fortune telling and good fortune. Fortune telling is forbidden for this is firstly, with taking into consideration the power of suggestion and the power of influence. When people speak of gloom, they influence this. Also when fortune tellers speak to infleunce people and events, they are ignoring the far greater power that influences change, for man and destiny, also what happens on earth. The ancients spoke of our destiny being written in the stars!

Even my Greek grandmother said your destiny is written in the stars. Our destiny is already planned. When we learn to respect there is a far higher order beyond this earth, then we can begin to undertand how this governs the earth.


Tuesday, 12 February 2013

Brazil Carnaval 2013 - Old and New World Unite

Brazil’s Carnival is a mass of colour as millions of people arrive for the five-day fiesta. This is a time of song and dance for people, before the faithful Brazilians begin lent with 40 days of fasting and preparation of Easter.

The detail that has gone into the creation of costumes and the floats reflect the passion of the people to invest into what this means for the people. There is a celebration of history and tradition that tells a story for all to see.

"Parade: Members of the Mancha Verde samba school at Sao Paulo's Sambadrome" - Mancha Verde means Green colour and can relate to land and the wilderness.

In Spain Castile–La Mancha was formerly united with the Madrid into Castilla la Nueva (New Castle) With the advent of the modern Spanish system of autonomous regions it was separated due to great demographic disparity between the capital and the remaining New-Castilian provinces. This is one of the kingdoms that founded the Crown of Castile, and the Kingdom of Spain. The Spanish Imperial Eagle is found mostly in the region of La Mancha. Imperial means Empire! The reason I am including this is because Juan Carlos, King of Spain is also King of Jerusalem. The Holy Land belongs to God and because God is for all nations - this means the time has come to revert back to spiritual laws of the highest order. God forbids war and injustice!

"Va-Va voom: Dancers from Vai-vai samba school take centrestage in the parade at San Paulo last night" - these ladies dressed in gold with golden head dresses. On their sash we can see a black and white checkboard design. Their head dresses could pass as those that we see in the Egyptian law court. They appear to be wearing the Eye of Isis around their neck.

King Solomon Married the daughter of an Egyptian Pharaoh so this made an important connection in history that still continues to be revealed today that people from different cultures have been united in peace in history too.

"Got rhythm: a queen of the drums of the Rosas de Ouro samba school performs during the first night of Sao Paulo's Carnival parades"

"Technicolor samba: dancers from the Rosas de Ouro samba school perform in Sao Paulo in the small hours of this morning"

Here this dancer from the Rosas de Ouro samba school is dwarfed by his float. Rosa de Ouro means Golden Rose.

"Piano men: members of the Mancha Verde samba school wow the audience in Sao Paulo's Sambadrome" - the detail that has gone into the costumes is for all eyes to see. The ships were commonly steam ships and guided by God who rules the Seas. Above a figure representing a King/Queen sits on the throne. The lights are on and pointing upwards towards the heavens.

Here a lady wearing white and silver, with a parasol, is showing a pregnant lady wearing the colour imperial purple, sitting in the yoga position, on what could represent a throne. The headdress could represent a crown. It is expected in this timeline that a divinely guided one will be also bringing Holy Wisdom to the people. There is also a warning that people will be decieved - many people meditate and want to have powers 'over people'. We are seeing many changes taking place today.

"Charge: after the Sao Paulo festivities last night and tonight, parades in Rio kick off on Sunday" - A while ago a vision of Christ returning on a white horses showed him radiating the most brightest of white light imaginable. Sao Paulo means Saint Paul, who was an apostle of Christ and from whom Pauline Christianity has been named and known.

"Weird and wonderful: members of the samba school Rosas de Ouro Special Group at the Sambadrome" -

The Society Rosas de Ouro was inspired by an award instituted by Pope Gregory II in 730. The Golden Rose is a papal decoration conferred on prominent Catholic personalities, initially, kings and dignitaries. Later it was conferred almost exclusively on Queens and Princess's. 10 have been given by Pope Benedict XVI

"Big band: drummers from the Mancha Verde samba school make some noise" (While in San Paolo, La Mancha is a plateau of central Spain, between the mountains of Toledo and the hills of Cuenca: traditionally associated Don Quixote)

"Come on, boys: the five days of parades, balls and street parties are expected to attract millions of locals and tourists" - notice the detail of red grapes being a feature focussed on this year for a reason and spiritual purple too.

"Shout it out: the overwhelming popularity of the carnival events boosts Brazil's economy to the tune of 𧹜 million"

"Walk like an Egyptian: revellers' costumes have become iconic in the way Brazil markets itself to the world" - In my earlier article pyrotechnics were said to be again to blame for Saida Maria Prieto being burned along with her costume that had distinctive Egyptian symbolism in Santa Cruz, Tenerife. In the above, we see that the full Golden headdress is being worn with an even more detailed float that is an example of when the truth is being suppressed, the truth will get even louder.

Cleopatra was divinely appointed would have been be The Queen of Justice. The golden head dress is symbolising that she is given divine authority to Judge on this earth as the Vigin Mary was also given divine authority too. This is why, many people reject anyone who is not divinely appointed. Biblical prophesy identifies deception taking place with this.

Members of Uniao da Ilha do Governador take part in the first day of the parades. Picture: EPA/ANTONIO LACERDA

Members of Salgueiro samba school dance on a float.Picture: ANTONIO SCORZA/AFP/Getty Images

So many people with so much happening - the diversity to capture the imagination of people from a creative perspective and to see, that in different ways, people have brought their truth to share openly in this occassion.

We are in the moment of passing from one phase to the next phase - taking the positives from history and learning lessons from the past. This applies to each and everyone today. Confession is more than speaking about sins, make a conscientious effort not to repeat the same mistakes and also still to put wrongs right. For only in this way is redemption possible.

Millions of people will be celebrating with carnivals and parties - this precedes Lent leading up to Easter. Traditionally, Christmas, Epiphany (January 6th) and Easter were days chosen for the Crowning of Emperors. Christ revealed himself to me during prayer on 7th January - He is dressed in long robe and wearing his Gold Crown. No one else can take this!

ADDITIONAL INFORMATION OF RELEVANCE.

'The name Brazil is derived from the Portuguese and Spanish word brasil, the name of an East Indian tree with reddish-brown wood from which a red dye was extracted. The Portuguese found a New World tree related to the Old World brasil tree when they explored what is now called Brazil, and as a result they named the New World country after the Old World tree.

In 2007, Pope Benedict XVI granted the Basilica of the National Shrine of Our Lady Aparecida a Golden Rose. The "Old Basilica" also possesses a Golden Rose, awarded by Pope Paul VI in 1967. The Golden Rose of Paul VI was delivered and bestowed as a gift of the Holy See to mark the participation of the Supreme Pontiff in the commemorations of the 250th anniversary of the devotion to the Virgin of Aparecida. The "New Basilica"'s Golden Rose, was delivered to the shrine by the Pope in person.

A basilica in Hellenistic Greece, administered justice on behalf of the Basileus a name used by Byzantine emperors. A basilica is the name given to certain churches granted special privileges by the Pope.

As part of the Portuguese Empire, Brazil inherited the devotion to Saint George as patron saint of Portugal. Saint George is also the patron saint of the football club Corinthians, of São Paulo. The official patron is Rio de Janeiro is Saint Sebastian both saints' feast days being local holidays.

Corinth and Corinthians relate to Greece and so it is no coincidence that St. George is the principal Greek Orthodox cathedral still in use in Istanbul (Constantinople) in Turkey, where Ecuenical Patriarche His Holiness Bartholomew is based. St. George is also known as the "Patriarchal Church of the Great Myrrh" - The name of the city of Smyrna also means Myrrh!

People in our lands have origins from different lands and traditions. We are living in a multicultural world with diverse ancient traditions. 2000 years ago Christ gave the law for the Brotherhood of Man. Today, in areas of high tourism, people from differnt cultures come together and appreciate differences. Over a million people will attend the 2013 Carnival - the show that has far more meaning to people than glamour, dance and a spectaculor display of colour and creative expression.


Temple of Portunus, Rome, c. 120-80 B.C.E. - History


Roman architecture differed fundamentally from this tradition because of the discovery, experimentation and exploitation of concrete, arches and vaulting (a good example of this is the Pantheon, c. 125 C.E.). Thanks to these innovations, from the first century C.E. Romans were able to create interior spaces that had previously been unheard of. Romans became increasingly concerned with shaping interior space rather than filling it with structural supports. As a result, the inside of Roman buildings were as impressive as their exteriors.
Temple of Portunus (formerly known as, Fortuna Virilis),
The Romans also exploited the opportunities afforded to architects by the innovation of the true arch (as opposed to a corbeled arch where stones are laid so that they move slightly in toward the center as they move higher). A true arch is composed of wedge-shaped blocks (typically of a durable stone), called voussoirs, with a key stone in the center holding them into place. In a true arch, weight is transferred from one voussoir down to the next, from the top of the arch to ground level, creating a sturdy building tool. True arches can span greater distances than a simple post-and-lintel. The use of concrete, combined with the employment of true arches allowed for vaults and domes to be built, creating expansive and breathtaking interior spaces.

Top Historic Sights in Rome, Italy

Angelokastro is a Byzantine castle on the island of Corfu. It is located at the top of the highest peak of the island"s shoreline in the northwest coast near Palaiokastritsa and built on particularly precipitous and rocky terrain. It stands 305 m on a steep cliff above the sea and surveys the City of Corfu and the mountains of mainland Greece to the southeast and a wide area of Corfu toward the northeast and northwest.

Angelokastro is one of the most important fortified complexes of Corfu. It was an acropolis which surveyed the region all the way to the southern Adriatic and presented a formidable strategic vantage point to the occupant of the castle.

Angelokastro formed a defensive triangle with the castles of Gardiki and Kassiopi, which covered Corfu"s defences to the south, northwest and northeast.

The castle never fell, despite frequent sieges and attempts at conquering it through the centuries, and played a decisive role in defending the island against pirate incursions and during three sieges of Corfu by the Ottomans, significantly contributing to their defeat.

During invasions it helped shelter the local peasant population. The villagers also fought against the invaders playing an active role in the defence of the castle.

The exact period of the building of the castle is not known, but it has often been attributed to the reigns of Michael I Komnenos and his son Michael II Komnenos. The first documentary evidence for the fortress dates to 1272, when Giordano di San Felice took possession of it for Charles of Anjou, who had seized Corfu from Manfred, King of Sicily in 1267.

From 1387 to the end of the 16th century, Angelokastro was the official capital of Corfu and the seat of the Provveditore Generale del Levante, governor of the Ionian islands and commander of the Venetian fleet, which was stationed in Corfu.

The governor of the castle (the castellan) was normally appointed by the City council of Corfu and was chosen amongst the noblemen of the island.

Angelokastro is considered one of the most imposing architectural remains in the Ionian Islands.


Ancient Roman sites

Angelokastro is a Byzantine castle on the island of Corfu. It is located at the top of the highest peak of the island"s shoreline in the northwest coast near Palaiokastritsa and built on particularly precipitous and rocky terrain. It stands 305 m on a steep cliff above the sea and surveys the City of Corfu and the mountains of mainland Greece to the southeast and a wide area of Corfu toward the northeast and northwest.

Angelokastro is one of the most important fortified complexes of Corfu. It was an acropolis which surveyed the region all the way to the southern Adriatic and presented a formidable strategic vantage point to the occupant of the castle.

Angelokastro formed a defensive triangle with the castles of Gardiki and Kassiopi, which covered Corfu"s defences to the south, northwest and northeast.

The castle never fell, despite frequent sieges and attempts at conquering it through the centuries, and played a decisive role in defending the island against pirate incursions and during three sieges of Corfu by the Ottomans, significantly contributing to their defeat.

During invasions it helped shelter the local peasant population. The villagers also fought against the invaders playing an active role in the defence of the castle.

The exact period of the building of the castle is not known, but it has often been attributed to the reigns of Michael I Komnenos and his son Michael II Komnenos. The first documentary evidence for the fortress dates to 1272, when Giordano di San Felice took possession of it for Charles of Anjou, who had seized Corfu from Manfred, King of Sicily in 1267.

From 1387 to the end of the 16th century, Angelokastro was the official capital of Corfu and the seat of the Provveditore Generale del Levante, governor of the Ionian islands and commander of the Venetian fleet, which was stationed in Corfu.

The governor of the castle (the castellan) was normally appointed by the City council of Corfu and was chosen amongst the noblemen of the island.

Angelokastro is considered one of the most imposing architectural remains in the Ionian Islands.


Noticias

Its dedication remains unclear, as ancient sources mention several temples in this area of … 7 likes. The whole doc is available only for registered usersThe users without accounts have to wait due to a large waiting list and high demand. This is the currently selected item. Delbrueck, Hellenistische bauten in Latium (Strassburg, K.J. Head of a Roman Patrician. The Temple of Portunus (Italian: Tempio di Portuno) or Temple of Fortuna Virilis ("manly fortune") is a Roman temple in Rome, one of the best preserved of all Roman temples. [1]

The steps leading up to the enclosed space, has maintained the external architecture feature of columns that have been seen with for example the Acropolis, except in this building structure, people are guided to one entrance through one set of steps. In ancient Greek temples there is a cella, or inner portion in the center of the temple containing a statue for the god or goddess the temple is to honor.

We believe that the brilliant histories of art belong to everyone, no matter their background. Sections of this page. Practice: Veristic Male Portrait.


Watch the video: Ταξίδι στην αρχαία Ρώμη