Civil Service - History

Civil Service - History

Civil Service

Civil service is a relatively new term used to describe an old governmental feature that is becoming increasingly important in modern political systems. The phrase was first used in British administration in India and was popularized by Sir Charles Trevelyan a little more than a century ago. When the principle of open competitive examination was introduced in Great Britain in 1854, the phrase “civil service” was also carried over and was applied to the officials serving the state in a professional capacity, except for those in the military and judicial services. Of course, equivalent bodies of officials have served states throughout history, long before the term “civil service” was applied to them.

Civil service is not a precise concept. It is similar to, but not identical in meaning with, other terms, such as public service and public bureaucracy. Although it has the advantage of familiarity, there are several difficulties in its use. Perhaps the chief difficulty is the distinction built into the term between the civil and military segments of the public service. In some governments this dividing line is becoming blurred and the interrelationships between civil and military services are growing more intimate, especially in the newly independent nations.

The definition does place emphasis on the professional character of the service as against work performed for the state on a sporadic, voluntary, or forced basis. As used in Great Britain, and to a certain degree elsewhere, the term “civil service” refers to officials serving the central government or its agencies rather than local units of government. Even when “civil service” is considered to include officials in local units, it is customary to exclude teachers, despite the large number of people engaged in this government-supported profession. The term itself does not specify conditions as to professional preparation, methods of recruitment, social and economic origins, or other crucial matters, but it is now customarily associated with a merit system, as contrasted with a patronage system, and with a service open to all citizens on the basis of talent and proved capacity.

Despite the vagueness in accepted definition and variations in its usage, “civil service” does identify the expanding corps of trained manpower that must be maintained by every modern polity to carry out governmental functions. The trend is world-wide, despite differences in cultural, political, historical, geographic, and other factors, for the scope and range of these governmental functions appear to be increasing. The result is usually described by such terms as “welfare state,” “administrative state,” and “big government.” Inevitably, the civil service plays a crucial role in the operation of modern governmental systems, whether in Western or non-Western states, in countries in the communist or noncommunist blocs, and in developed or developing nations. In all of them, the civil service is the core of modern government, growing in its power position vis-à-vis other political organs and therefore posing grave problems of control and accountability. At the same time that its contributions have become more essential, the question of the proper placement of the civil service in the governmental system has grown more difficult. While the external relationships of the civil service have been changing, its internal characteristics have also been modified in ways that transcend differences in the political systems generally. A consistent trend is that the proportion of the total work force that is encompassed by the civil service has been growing in most countries. Another is that the requirements of the civil service call for the services of a constantly expanding variety of occupational and technical specialists, representing all or most of those available in the society. These developments, in turn, have led to a trend toward professionalization among civil servants that affects their attitudes and behavior in ways that are significant both for the conduct of civil service activities and in the relationships of the civil service with other political groupings.

The present federal civil service system is much the same as in 1883. Only two new elements have been added&mdashretirement and position-classification. However, the merit system has been vastly expanded, both in giving protection from spoils and politics and in requiring competitive tests and efficiency on the job.

This is the chief sign of a new and modern purpose in civil service. The main object of the Pendleton Act and of state civil service laws passed at about the same time was to get rid of the evils of the spoils system. Today, the idea is not just to avoid personnel changes for partisan reasons, but to get really efficient and capable people into the government service. Also, the administration of the civil service system has been vastly improved. We now refer to it as &ldquopersonnel management.&rdquo

How does the retirement system work?

Not until the Retirement Act of 1920 did the federal government provide for its superannuated employees. This act, as revised, provides for compulsory retirement of employees on reaching seventy years of age who have had at least fifteen years service in the government. An annuity is paid on retirement, toward which the government and the worker both contribute.

The benefit of the retirement system was revealed immediately upon passage of the act. In the first two months more than 5,000 employees retired. Some were over ninety years of age! And yet it took more than seventy years of agitation before the Retirement Act was passed, the first bill having been introduced in 1849! In the meantime, old and infirm employees were kept on the job because the departments did not want to thrust them out into poverty. Naturally, employees felt that their long years of service went unrewarded.

Workmen&rsquos compensation, as it is known in the factories, was introduced into the federal government services in 1916 when the Employees Compensation Act was passed. This provides compensation for injury or death incurred by a federal employee. It is administered in active service by a separate agency, the United States Employees Compensation Commission.

What is position-classification?

One of the early and ineffective civil service reforms was the &ldquoclassification&rdquo made of certain federal positions by the act of 1853. As a matter of history, an act as early as 1795 provided that the department heads should vary salaries &ldquoin such a manner as the services to be performed shall, in their judgment, require.&rdquo But Congress soon thereafter began to specify in appropriation acts the exact number of clerks in a department and the salaries to be paid them. In the end, there was neither standardization of titles nor equality of pay.

Many efforts were made at reform. Grant&rsquos Civil Service Commission appointed a committee on the subject in 1871. Every annual report of the present commission from 1902 on stressed the need for &ldquoequal pay for equal work.&rdquo In 1907, President Theodore Roosevelt appointed the so-called &ldquoKeep Committee&rdquo which devised a position-classification system based on duties rather than salaries. In 1911 President Taft&rsquos Commission on Efficiency and Economy concluded a classification system was long overdue and in 1918 there was established a Division of Efficiency to carry out the instructions of Congress that a uniform system be established for rating the efficiency of federal employees. It was soon found that efficiency ratings could not be compared until positions were standardized.

Finally in 1919 Congress established the Joint Commission on Reclassification of Salaries. Its report of 1920 revealed startling discrepancies in titles and salaries. An example is the job which the commission decided should be called &ldquosenior file and record clerk.&rdquo At the time there were 105 titles for this job with salaries ranging from $720 to $2,400 a year.

For three years Congress debated various bills and in March 1923 passed the Classification Act. It applied only to the posts in Washington and not to &ldquothe field&rdquo as government offices outside the Washington headquarters are known. These were left to the departments until 1940 when under the Ramspeck Act the Civil Service Commission was given jurisdiction over the field positions.

What is the pay for federal jobs?

The 1923 classification plan assures equal pay- for equal work. Each job is analyzed and assigned to a class on the basis of its duties. Job-titles are standardized according to their class, for instance, &ldquoclerk-typist,&rdquo &ldquomessenger,&rdquo and so on. Thus the name of the job comes from the name of the class to which it belongs. Classification considers the job as the entity and as separate from the individual. In other words, the duties and responsibilities of the work involved, and not the qualifications of the person holding the job, determine the classification.

The classes and grades of federal jobs are in turn grouped into four services as the chart on page 14 shows. P stands for professional CAF for clerical-administrative-fiscal CPC for crafts-protective-custodial SP for subprofessional.

Notice that there are two ways to get more pay. One is an increase within grade, from the minimum or entrance rate to the maximum. Such increases are granted because of efficiency and length of service. The other is by promotion to a vacancy in the next trade, P-1 to P-2 for example, when the worker is picked to assume the greater responsibility and difficulty of work of the higher grade.

As a measure, it might be mentioned that the college graduate generally enters at the CAF-5 or P-1 level and spends a year or more in that grade before moving to the next grade. Time spent within each grade lengthens, usually, as the worker goes up the ladder.

Many workers are in &ldquoupgraded&rdquo positions, especially the civilians working in arsenals and navy yards for the War and Navy departments. These industrial-type jobs are outside the formal classification system. For them, job-classification and salaries are determined through wage-fixing procedures locally and are related to the rate paid in each place for comparable jobs in private enterprise.

Are all government jobs under civil service?

Almost all federal government positions except policy-making posts are now under civil service. (We will discuss state and city governments later.) This coverage of federal jobs was not achieved until a few years ago, however. Only about 10 percent of the federal jobs were covered at the time the Civil Service Act was passed&mdash1883. But the act gave the president the authority to include additional positions. Every president since then has added positions to the classified, or competitive, civil service.

Civil Service - Employment History vs Previous skills and experience

Does anyone have any advice on how to structure the CV sections on employment history and previous skills and experience? Should employment history be positions held and dates, and a short summary of responsibilities, whilst should previous skills and experience address each of the skills the job description requires in turn and how you meet these? Concerned this could make it quite lengthy.

Advice greatly appreciated

Not really but I’ve been looking at jobs and I’ve another form to fill in so would like to know!

I’ve recently submitted one done it exactly as you suggest, but agree it’s really not clear. Haven’t heard back yet so no idea if that was the right way! Also no word count For experience when there are explicit ones elsewhere. Argh.

I have recently been shortlisted for some civil service roles (SEO and Grade 7) and I approached it by listing positions held, dates, and key responsibilities in the 'CV' section, then a narrative highlighting my most relevant areas of expertise / successful projects / ways I meet the person spec etc. under 'Experience'.

No idea if that was what they wanted, but I was shortlisted for a few roles. (Ended up withdrawing from the processes before interview as I received an offer elsewhere).

For the 'Experience' narrative, I don't know how many words it was, but it was just under 1 side of A4 when I typed it in Word format.

Civil service

It also eliminates the Schedule F classification which took away protections for some civil service employees.

Their responses have been eye-opening, everything from reimagining capitalism to launching a domestic draft civil service .

He resegregated the federal civil service after decades of integration.

So there was real suspicion of the civil service , that we were not making the kinds of recommendations that Lighthizer would want to hear.

The newspaper said De Croo also appointed De Sutter, a member of Groen, the Flemish Green Party, as his civil service minister.

They are, to say the least, preparing for civil war (the polling stations are stormed by armed gangs).

But what is there more irresponsible than playing with the fire of an imagined civil war in the France of today?

Compared with neighbors Myanmar, Vietnam, and Laos, Cambodia appears to have a blossoming civil society.

Strangio is at his best when exposing what appears to be a flourishing civil society in Cambodia.

Rashad was there to celebrate the release of the Civil Rights drama Selma.

His 6,000 native auxiliaries (as it proved later on) could not be relied upon in a civil war.

The proceedings of the day commenced with divine service, performed by Unitarian and Baptist ministers.

The badness of the gunpowder used by the Mexicans, was again of great service to us.

For this use of the voice in the special service of will-power, or propelling force, it is necessary first to test its freedom.

He began his military career at the age of 11, and continued in the service nearly 60 years.

Civil Service Commission

The Civil Service Commission accepts and processes applications received in response to testing announcements, administers tests of various types to create eligible lists for hires, and certifies names from eligible lists to fill vacancies within the City of Cleveland.

Civil Service test announcements and applications to take examinations are processed through NEOGOV, the City’s online application system. Paper applications are no longer accepted.

Information Regarding Employment and Testing

By law, almost all full-time positions with the City are subject to Civil Service testing. In order to be appointed as a regular employee, a Civil Service examination must be passed. When a test is announced, applicants may take the test to become eligible for a job classification for a full time job. However, passing the examination and being placed on an eligible list for any classification is not a guarantee of employment with the City of Cleveland.

In compliance with the Americans with Disabilities Act, the City will provide reasonable accommodations to individuals for testing. Those accommodations must be requested at the time of application.

Applicants selected for employment must pass a criminal background check and a medical exam which includes a drug screen. Having a criminal record of any type, including felonies, is not an automatic bar to employment with the City of Cleveland however, different aspects of an applicant's background could potentially disqualify them for certain specific positions with the City. The City of Cleveland is an equal employment opportunity employer.

The City of Cleveland only accepts applications for current job openings and current testing announcements. To be notified of future openings, applicants can click on “Jobs Interest” from the left column, and select areas of interest. An e-mail will be sent automatically, when new jobs are posted.

Title VII of the Civil Service Reform Act

By 1977, President Carter had determined that comprehensive reform of the civil service system – the first since the Pendleton Act of 1883 – was necessary. The Congress agreed and, after extensive hearings, passed the Civil Service Reform Act of 1978. Title VII of that Act, which specifically addressed labor-management relations and established the authority of the FLRA, engendered particularly heated debate. Eventually, a substitute amendment proposed by Rep. Morris K. Udall replaced that title of the bill before the House of Representatives. Members of Congress, previously opposed to the initial legislation that contained a broad management rights provision, supported the amendment, based on an understanding that the provision would be "narrowly construed" and would, "wherever possible, encourage both parties to work out their differences in negotiations." (Rep. Ford, 124 Cong. Rec. H9648). The House passed the "Udall Substitute," the Senate agreed to the conference report embodying that amendment, and President Carter signed Title VII, the Federal Service Labor-Management Relations Statute, into law as part of the Civil Service Reform Act on October 13, 1978, effective January 11, 1979.

The Reorganization Plan No. 2 of 1978, which took effect on January 1, 1979, 10 days before the Statute became law, effected the actual establishment of the FLRA. As one commentator described, the legislative negotiations that resulted in Title VII and established the FLRA "so muddied the content and intent of the new agency that no one knew what it was supposed to do or how it was supposed to do it." (Patricia W. Ingraham and David H. Rosenbloom, eds., The Promise and Paradox of Civil Service Reform, University of Pittsburgh Press (1992) at 95 (quoting Carolyn Ban, "Implementing Civil Service Reform" (1984) at 219).) It was clear, however, that the functions of the Federal Labor Relations Council and the Assistant Secretary of Labor for Labor-Management Relations were consolidated in an independent agency. As President Carter explained, the arrangement under the Executive Order was "defective because the Council members are part-time, they come exclusively from the ranks of management, and their jurisdiction is fragmented." (Message from President Jimmy Carter Transmitting Reorganization Plan No. 2 of 1978, May 23, 1978.)

While the statutory program was similar in many respects to the system that it replaced, there were programmatic and structural differences that radically changed federal-sector labor-management relations. Among the more significant changes affecting the structure and operation of the new agency were:

Establishment of the independent and bipartisan Authority to replace the Council, whose members had been the heads of three executive agencies, and given broad powers to remedy unfair labor practices and formal rulemaking authority

Establishment of the independent Office of the General Counsel to investigate and prosecute unfair labor practice charges and

The Statute made the Authority's final orders – which it issues in unfair labor practice and negotiability decisions – subject to judicial review.

In addition, the Statute made significant substantive changes that would alter the dynamics of labor-management relations, including:

Requiring that collective-bargaining agreements contain grievance procedures terminating in binding arbitration, and broadening the permissible scope of negotiated grievance procedures

Requiring that agencies grant official time to exclusive representatives for negotiating collective-bargaining agreements and

Changing the nature and scope of reserved management rights and the exceptions to those rights.

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Eligible List Establishment Date: June 15, 2021

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At the inception, the Civil Service Commission was known and called the Mid-Western Public Service Commission. The Commission was established on 6th November, 1963 by His Excellency the then Premier of the Mid-Western Region, Chief D.C Osadebey by virtue of the powers conferred on him by sub-section (2) of Section 62 of the Constitution of the Mid-Western State. The Commission was created by Government’s desire to have an Independent Service Commission which shall be responsible for Appointments, Promotions and discipline of Staff.

Following the creation of Bendel State in 1976, the then named Mid-Western Public Service Commission was rebranded to the Bendel State Public Service Commission, the name it was called until August, 1991 when Edo State was carved out of Bendel State. Ever since its establishment, the Commission has always been headed by a Chairman and not more than four Members of equal status with a five year tenure of office. Tenure of Members may however be renewed as approved by the Governor and subject to confirmation by the State House of Assembly.

The State Civil Service Commission is one of the State Executive Bodies established by Section 197 of the 1999 Constitution of the Federal Republic of Nigeria (as amended). The Commission is vested with the responsibilities of treating matters concerning the State Civil Service with respect to Appointments, Promotions, Discipline, Confirmation of Appointments, Transfers, Retirements, Petitions and Other related matters. These powers are derived from Part II to the Third Schedule to the Constitution of the Federal Republic of Nigeria 1999 (as amended). The Civil Service Commission provides quality manpower to drive the Policies of Government into concrete realities.

The Activities/Achievements of the Commission is contained in its yearly report known as Commission’s Annual Report.

Civil service

Civil service employees, often called civil servants or public employees, work in a variety of fields such as teaching, sanitation, health care , management, and administration for the federal, state, or local government. Legislatures establish basic prerequisites for employment such as compliance with minimal age and educational requirements and residency laws. Employees enjoy job security, promotion and educational opportunities, comprehensive medical insurance coverage, and Pension and other benefits often not provided in comparable positions in private employment.

Most civil service positions are filled from lists of applicants who are rated in descending order of their passing scores on competitive civil service examinations. Such examinations are written tests designed to measure objectively a person's aptitude to perform a job. They are open to the general public upon the completion and filing of the necessary forms. Promotional competitive examinations screen eligible employees for job advancement. Veterans of the Armed Services may be given hiring preference, usually in the form of extra points added to their examination scores, depending upon the nature and duration of their service. Applicants may also be required to pass a medical examination and more specialized tests that relate directly to the performance of a designated job. Once hired, an employee may have to take an oath to execute his job in Good Faith and in accordance with the law.

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