Geghard

Geghard

Geghard (Armenian: Geghardavank or "monastery of the spear") is a medieval monastery located in Armenia's Kotayk province, deep within the Azat Valley, which was built directly out of an adjacent mountain. Geghard is renown throughout Armenia for its medieval art and architecture, and local traditions associate the site with Saint Gregory the Illuminator (c. 257 – c. 331 CE) who came to the area to found a small Christian chapel in the 4th century CE. Geghard's name attests to the former presence of a spear that supposedly pierced the body of Jesus Christ while he was crucified. This is now kept at Echmiadzin Cathedral in Vagharshapat, Armenia. The complex was designated as a UNESCO World Heritage Site in 2000 CE.

History & Geography

Geghard is enveloped by tall cliffs along the Azat River, and the monastery is not too far from the strategic Ararat Plain. Located 30 km (19 mi) from Yerevan, the Geghard is quite near the Temple of Garni - Armenia's only surviving pagan temple - which is only 11 km (7 mi) down the Azat River. Geghard is additionally not too far from the ancient Armenian capital of Artashat and the medieval fortress of Kakavaberd. It is likely that the environs around Geghard were inhabited in prehistoric times, including by the Urartians between the 8th-6th centuries BCE. In pagan times, local inhabitants venerated a spring that emerged from the cave that today forms part of the monastery. It is for this reason that Geghard is sometimes referred to as "Ayvirank," which in Armenian means "Monastery of the Cave."

Over time, Ayvirank grew from being a small chapel into a monastic community. The monastery is attested by ancient and early medieval Armenian historians, although the remains of Ayvirank have not survived the ages. In the 8th and 9th centuries CE, Arab invaders pillaged Ayvirank, destroying unique manuscripts, libraries, and burning down the multiple religious edifices of which comprised the monastery. Although Ayvirank was ruined, in time, a new monastery would be rebuilt in its place: Geghard.

Inscriptions within the complex insinuate that construction on the main church of Geghard - Katoghike - ended around the year 1215 CE. This church was commissioned under the patronage of two Armenian princes: Zakharia and Ivan. However, it should be noted that the oldest inscriptions at the complex are located within the small Chapel of St Gregory, and they date to the 1170s CE. When Queen Tamar (r. 1184-1213 CE) reconquered much of Armenia from the Seljuk Turks and other Turkic tribes in the late 12th and early 13th centuries, she helped stimulate a brief golden age of artistic splendor and cultural production in both Armenia and Georgia. Geghard flourished, as a result, from c. 1200-1400 CE when it was a popular destination for Armenian and Georgian Christians. Mkhitar Ayrivanetsi and Simeon Ayrivanetsi - Armenian historians who pioneered innovative techniques in Armenian manuscript art - lived and worked at Geghard in the 13th century CE. Geghard was called the "monastery of the seven churches and the monastery of the forty altars" during its medieval heyday.

Geghard was called the "monastery of the seven churches and the monastery of the forty altars" during its medieval heyday.

Pilgrims came to Geghard mainly to see the sacred spear that touched Christ and was brought to the Caucasus by the Jude the Apostle (d. 70 CE). He is usually identified with Thaddeus and sometimes called "Jude Thaddaeus" in Christian texts. For 500 years, this spear was visible at the monastery. Other relics attributed to the Apostles John and Andrew entered the Geghard treasury in the 12th century CE, and they were equally venerated and revered. Georgian and Armenian nobles, as well as the Proshyan princes, patronized Geghard, donating immense riches and sums of money to the monastery. As Geghard grew wealthy, it began to function as an ecclesiastical and cultural center with a scriptorium, several schools, and a library. Other religious structures were built in the 13th century CE, and further living and economic structures were built in the 17th century CE, the latter of which are now in ruin.

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Art & Architecture

Geghard is built into solid rock in an equal-armed cruciform fashion. More than 20 buildings were carved directly from the side of the mountains, and these structures include tombs, chapels, vestries, and churches. More specifically, Geghard consists of eastern and western churches cut from rock, a tomb complex belonging to the Proshyan princes, the tomb and chapel of General Papak and Ruzukan (the generals who captured Geghard for Queen Tamar of Georgia), a cathedral, and an adjacent narthex. There are also old monastic dwelling cells and countless khachkars (memorial stele with a cross) around Geghard.

The main church, Katoghike, has a cruciform layout, which was typical of medieval Armenian architecture. A defensive wall, which dates from the 12-13th centuries CE, encircles and protects the area to the south, east, and west of the monastery, while the cliffs and mountains protect the area to the north. The interiors of the buildings at Geghard are ornately decorated. Many feature carvings of various wild animals, flowers and other vegetation, and complex geometrical patterns rendered in high relief. Among the most elaborate carvings is that of a lion attacking an ox, which was symbolic of the Proshyan princes' authority and munificence. On the internal walls of Geghard, there are numerous inscriptions recording the names of patrons and those who provided donations to individual churches or chapels.

Geghard represents the apogee of achievement in medieval Armenian art and architecture. Its stunning natural location, innovative architecture, and rich decor greatly influenced the subsequent trajectory and course of medieval architecture in Armenia.

This article was made possible with generous support from the National Association for Armenian Studies and Research and the Knights of Vartan Fund for Armenian Studies.


Geghard

Geghard (în armeană Գեղարդ, literalmente „suliță”) este o mănăstire medievală aflată în provincia Kotayk a Armeniei, parțial săpată în muntele adiacent și înconjurată de stânci. Este listată de UNESCO ca loc al patrimoniului mondial.

Capela principală a fost construită în 1215, dar complexul mănăstirii a fost fondat în secolul al IV-lea către Grigore Luminătorul pe locul unui izvor dintr-o peșteră. Mănăstirea a fost astfel numită la început Ayrivank (Այրիվանք), ceea ce înseamnă „Mănăstirea din Peșteră”. Numele uzual al mănăstirii în ziua de azi, Geghard, sau, mai complet, Geghardavank (Գեղարդավանք), cu sensul de „Mănăstirea Suliței”, provine de la sulița care l-a rănit pe Isus la răstignire, despre care se spune că ar fi fost adusă în Armenia de către apostolul Iuda, numit aici Tadeul, și ținută printre multe alte obiecte de cult. Astăzi, este expusă la trezoreria Echmiadzin.

Spectaculoasele stânci abrupte din jurul mănăstirii fac parte din defileul râului Azat ⁠( d ) , și sunt incluse, împreună cu mănăstirea, în situl din patrimoniul mondial. Unele biserici din complexul mănăstirii sunt în întregime săpate în stâncă, altele sunt doar peșteri decorate, în timp ce altele sunt structuri elaborate, cu secțiuni de zid de o arhitectură complexă și cu încăperi săpate adânc în stâncă. Împreună cu numeroasele hacikare gravate, formează un peisaj deosebit, fiind una dintre cele mai frecventate destinații turistice din Armenia.

Majoritatea vizitatorilor de la Geghard aleg și să viziteze templul păgân Garni ⁠( d ) , situat în apropiere, în aval pe râul Azat. Vizitarea ambelor locații este atât de comună încât acestea sunt adesea denumite împreună „Garni-Geghard”.


Visiting Armenia? Things to do During Your Stay

Armenia was once a great civilization. Considered one of the world’s oldest civilizations, the country has faced several periods of oppression and invasion throughout its history. There are countless things to explore and do in Armenia.

The Monastery of Geghard

The Monastery of Geghard is a medieval monastery that was carved out of the adjacent mountain and is surrounded by cliffs. This is a World Heritage Site. A main feature of the monastery is a 1215 chapel complex that was founded in the fourth century.

A sacred spring is located in a cave, and this is a picturesque adventure.

Matenadaran Museum of Ancient Manuscripts

The Museum of Ancient Manuscripts is a stunning relic of the past. This is a Museum of Ancient Manuscripts. The museum records many writings from the 5th century from Ghazar Parpetsi, an ancient historian.

Greek and Armenian manuscripts were noted in the Etchmiadzin Cathedral.

Thousands of manuscripts were destroyed over the centuries, and in 1170 alone, there are rumors that 10,000 manuscripts were burned at the time.

All collections provided in the museum include 17,000 manuscripts and some 30,000 documents. Guests cannot touch these scripts for obvious reasons, but it covers everything from grammar and medicine as well as science and history.

Lake Sevan Region

A tropical paradise, the Lake Sevan Region is filled with:

Winters are long in the region, and the region spans over numerous cites: Sevan, Kavar, Vardenis, Shorjha and Martuin.

Taxi is the best way to get around the far side, and prices are low. There is the beautiful Sevanavank Monastery, which is the most visited destination on the lake. Numerous other monasteries are in the vicinity.

Fish restaurants are in abundance, and fish is very cheap.

Vodka is the drink of choice in the area, and most locals speak Russian.

There are areas of the lake that allow you to go swimming, wind surfing, sailing and rowing. You’re urged to remain safe in the lake, as whirlpools and rip currents are present in the water. So, if you are not confident it is advised you have supervision and possibly practice before you go, maybe get back on your stamina body trac glider to gain a level of fitness.

Tsitsernakaberd

Armenia is home to one of the world’s worst genocides in history. The site is visited by 200,000 people per year, and it’s situated on the hills along the pristine Hrazdan River. Construction of the monument started in early 1962.

This is a humbling experience of history.

The genocide took place between 1915 and 1923 when the Ottoman empire gathered up 235 – 270 intellectuals and leaders who were mostly murdered.

Deportation and mass murder of the Armenians led to 1.5 million deaths during the genocide. Ottoman Christians were killed.

The memorial is a chilling reminder of the cold, dark past of the world.

Garni Temple

The Temple of Garni is an ancient structure erected by pagans. This Hellenistic temple was built to the sun god Mihr. The temple was converted to a royal summer home in the fourth century.

The temple features Ancient Greek architecture, and you can still see ancient Greek engravings at the temple.

It’s a beautiful site to see for history buffs. Visitors will want to make their way to the nearby monastery of Geghard. The temple is also a neo pagan shrine that has grown in favor in recent decades.


Geghard

Samostan Geghard ili Geghardavank (armenski: Գեղարդավանք, što znači "Samostan koplja") je jedinstven samostanski kompleks Armenske apostolske Crkve u armenskoj pokrajini Kotajk, dijelom isklesan iz stijena planine koja ga okružuje.

Samostan je u 4. stoljeću osnovao Sveti Grgur Iluminator na mjestu gdje se u špilji nalazio sveti izvor. Zbog toga se samostan najprije zvao Ajrivank, tj. "Špiljski samostan" [1] . Današnji naziv je dobio prema "svetom koplju", tj. koplju kojim je ranjen Isus Krist na Raspelu, koje je navodno u Armeniju donio Apostol Sveti Juda Tadej, a koje je čuvano u ovom samostanu. Danas se može vidjeti u Ečmijadzinskoj riznici.

Fantastične strme stijene koje okružuju samostan su dio klanca gornjeg toka rijeke Azat koje su, zajedno sa samostanom Geghard, upisane na UNESCO-v popis mjesta svjetske baštine u Aziji i Oceaniji 2000. godine.

Izvorni samostan su uništili Arapi u 9. stoljeću, i on je obnovljen u 12. i 13. stoljeću za vrijeme srednjovjekovne Bagratidske Armenije, ponajviše zahvaljujući novčanoj pomoći mnogih hodočasnika koji su dolazili vidjeti relikvije sv. Andrije i sv. Tadeja. Samostan je tada bio poznat kao "Samostan sedam crkava" ili "Samostan četrdesed oltara".

Neke od građevina u samostanu su isklesane iz živih stijena (poput najstarije građevine, kapele sv. Grgura iz 1177.), dok su neke samo preoblikovane špilje (poput grobnice kneževa, zamatoun iz 1283.), ali najljepše su raskošne građevine koje su spojene na prirodne špilje kao dijelove unutrašnjosti. U tradiciji armenske narodne arhitekture, građevine su pokrivena slojevitim krovovima, gdje su središnji viši i stoje na četiri snažna stupa unutar građevine. Takva je i glavna crkva (Kathoghikè) izgrađena 1215. godine. Ona je klasična armenska crkva tlocrta upisanog križa s kupolom na sjecištu njegovih krakova koja je iznutra ime stalaktite (najbolji primjer ove tehnike u Armeniji). U njezinim kutovima nalaze se male dvokatne kapele, a unutarnji zidovi su ukrašeni mnogim reljefima simbola i natpisima pokrovitelja. Njezin gavit (narteks) je povezuje s najstarijom isklesanom crkvom.

Samostan je u 13. stoljeću dobio vodoopskrbni sustav i zatvoren je visokim zidinama, a monasi su živjeli u ćelijama isklesanima u stijenama ispred ulaza u zidinama. U cijelom krajoliku nalaze se i mnogi hačkari (kameni križevi), također dijelom izgrađeni, a dijelom isklesani u stijenama.


A hagyomány szerint a kolostort a 4. században alapította Világosító Szent Gergely. Helyén a barlangból kifolyó forrás már a pogány időkben is szentnek számított és a kolostor egyik megnevezése is Barlangkolosotor (Ajrivank) volt. Az első kolostort az arabok a 9. században lerombolták, az akkori építményekből semmi sem maradt fent. A 4., 8. és 10. századi örmény krónikák szerint a templomok mellett lakó- és melléképületek is tartoztak hozzá. 923-ban Naszr, a kalifa alrégense kifosztotta a kolostort, többek között egyedi kéziratokat is elvitt, az épületeket pedig felgyújtotta. A romokat földrengések rongálták tovább.

Miután I. Tamar grúz királynő Örményország nagy részét visszafoglalta a törököktől, hadvezérei, Ivane és fivére, Zakare 1215-ben újjáépíttették a főtemplomot. A részben a sziklából kifaragott előcsarnok (ún. gavit) 1225 előtt épült és miután Pros Hagbakjan herceg megvásárolta a kolostort a 13. század közepén, több kisebb kápolnát is vájtak a sziklába. Utódai tovább bővítették Geghardot, megépült egy második barlangtemplom, egy családi síremlék, egy csarnok melyben gyűléseket tartottak (amely a 20. században leomlott) és nagyszámú cellát a szerzetesek számára. Maga Hagbakjan herceg is ide temetkezett 1283-ban. Fénykorában a hét templom és negyven oltár kolostorának nevezték.

Geghard (szó szerint lándzsa) az itt őrzött szent ereklyékről is nevezetes volt, melyek messze földről vonzották a zarándokokat. Közülük a leghíresebb Longinus lándzsája, amivel megölték Jézust. A lándzsát állítólag Tádé apostol hozta ide és a kolostor róla kapta a nevét is (először 1250-ben nevezik így). Pengéje egészen széles, gyémánt formájú és keresztformát vágtak bele. Ereklyetartóját 1687-ben készítették, ma a lándzsával együtt Vagarsapatban őrzik. A 12. században a kolostornak adományozták András és János evangélista ereklyéit is. A 13. században az egyik barlangcellában élt a neves örmény krónikás-szerzetes, Mhitar Ajrivaneci.

A nyugati főbejárathoz közeledve a domboldalban barlangok, kápolnák, faragványok láthatók. A kolostort három oldalról 12-13. századi falak veszik körbe negyedik oldalról a sziklafal védi. A központi udvar túloldalán nyílik a hátsó bejárat, melyen túl a rituális állatáldozatok asztala (matagh) és a patakon átvezető híd található.

Az udvart egy- és kétszintes lakó- és raktárépületek fogják körbe, melyeket több alkalommal is átépítettek, sokszor egészen az alapoktól, mint a 17. században, vagy az 1968-71-es rekonstrukció idején. A legtöbb szerzetes nem ezekben, hanem a főbejáraton kívül, a sziklába vágott cellákban lakott. Több mint húsz kisebb-nagyobb kőbe vágott helyiséget lehet összeszámolni. A nyugati részen találhatók lakás és raktárcélra szolgáltak, míg a többiek kis kápolnák egy oltárral és félkör alakú apszissal. A kolostoron belül és kívül a sziklafalakat művészein kidolgozott keresztdomborművek díszítik, melyeket az elhunytak vagy adományozók emlékére készítettek.

A főtemplomot (Katoghike) 1215-ben építette I. Tamar királynő két hadvezére, a Zakare és Ivane testvérpár. A kereszt alaprajzú épület a sziklafal mellett áll, belső terét középen kupola koronázza. Dúsan faragott főkapuja a déli falán található. A kapu timpanonját gránátalmafák és szőlőindák, valamint két galamb domborművei díszítik fölé bikára támadó oroszlán szobrát helyezték, amely a herceg hatalmát szimbolizálta.

A templomhoz nyugatról csatlakozik az 1215-1225 között épült gavit (vagy narthex). Kőtetejét négy masszív oszlop tartja, középen egy tetőnyílás engedi be a fényt. A helyiséget gyűlések összehívására, oktatásra, zarándokok fogadására használták.

A gavit északnyugati oldalából nyílik a barlangból 1240-ben kialakított első sziklatemplom (Avazan), melynek forrását a pogány időkben is szentként tisztelték. A helyiség egyenlő szárú keresztet formáz és egy felirat szerint Galdzak építész műve, aki negyvenéves működése során számos sziklatemplomot készített.

A Pros-család sírboltja (zsamatun) és a belőle nyíló második sziklatemplom (Asztvacacin) 1283-ban épült, feltehetően szintén Galdzak tervei alapján. A sírbolt a gavit északkeleti belső falán lévő kapuból érhető el. Formája nagyjából négyszögletes, falai mélyen vágott domborművekkel vannak díszítve. Különösen feltűnő az északi fal kosfejhez láncolt két oroszlánját és a köztük található, bárányt elragadó sast (feltehetően a Pros-család címere) ábrázoló dombormű. A második sziklatemplomba vezető kapu is dúsan faragott, nagy kereszttel ékesített és mellette szirénekkel (nőarcú madarakkal) ékesített kis kápolnafülkét vágtak a sziklába.

A második sziklatemplom is kereszt alaprajzú, kőbe vágott, domborművekkel díszített kupola alkotja a tetejét, melynek közepén világító nyílást vágtak a külvilágba. A falakat állatok, harcosok, virágok és keresztek domborművei ékesítik.

Az 1288-ban épült felső zsamatun egy külső lépcsőn érhető el. Szintén teljes egészében kőbe faragták, formája a gavitot idézi. Merik és Grigor hercegek sírjai találhatók benne a többi mára elveszett. A helyiségbe vezető folyosó falába számos keresztdomborművet faragtak.

A kolostoron kívül, a főbejárattól mintegy száz méternyire, jóval az út fölött található az 1177 előtt épült, sziklába vágott Világosító Szent Gergely-kápolna. A vakolatmaradványok alapján valaha freskók borították belső falait.


Klosterkomplekset er lukket på syd- og østsiden af bygninger (13 på grundplanen) ΐ] . På den vestlige side grænser det op til en klippe, syd for den er hovedporten (14). En mindre indgang (15) er på østsiden. På sin højere nordside er klosteret beskyttet af en mur (12).

Hovedkirken, Kathogike (2) i klosteret er indviet til Vor Frue . Det er en østvendt korskirke med fire hjørnekapeller og en tambur med et telttag . Dens kvadratiske forhal (gavit) (3) er meget større end selve kirken. Fire massive søjler understøtter buerne, der opdeler gaviten i ni sektioner. Der er en lysåbning over den større centrale firkant.

Nord for hovedkirken og dens gavits er der andre kirker og gavits inde i klippen. En første stenkirke, kaldet Avazankirken, er tilgængelig fra det nordvestlige hjørne af forhallen. Den blev bygget i 1240 som en forlængelse af en hule, der indeholdt en kilde. Den har en næsten firkantet grundplan, hvor en firkant er indskrevet af søjler og buer. Kuppelen har en stalaktithvælving lånt fra islamisk arkitektur. I kirken findes vandbassinet (Avazan), hvor kildevandet, der betragtes som mirakuløst, opsamles.

Fra det nordøstlige hjørne af forhallen ankommer man til Zhamatoun, også kaldet Proschjankrypten, en slags gavit, der bruges til begravelse. Det blev hugget ind i klippen i 1283, ligesom Proschjanfamiliens klippekirke bag det. En trappe og en cirka 2 m bred og 10 m lang korridor fører fra kompleksets vestside til den øvre gavit, som også bruges til begravelse. Det blev bygget af prins Josch i 1288 som en krypt for sin kone over de andre hulrum. I det nordøstlige hjørne af klosteret er flere små klippekapeller, der kan nås via en trappe, udskåret i klippen.


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Armenian gata is the lucky, sweet bread you've got to taste, at least once

Bread is meant to be one of life’s most simple, edible treasures. But when you learn the story about gata, an Armenian bread-like treat that’s worth hunting down even if it’s just to taste once in your lifetime, you’ll realise that culinary simplicity can be shrouded in beautifully complex roots.

“If you’re someone who likes an uneven taste of sweetness in one bite, you’ll enjoy gata,” says Arpy Iskikian, a caterer and cook from Sydney’s Armenian community who learned to make the dish from extended family in Armenia five years ago. “Gata is popular in every city in Armenia and almost every family that can still make it at home.”

“Although gata is made throughout Armenia, the gata that the locals in Geghard make tastes different to gata from around the country. They use milk from their farms and put their own unique spirit into it.”

If gata were as simple as a standard serve of bread, you’d describe it as a loaf with a sweet filling. But truth be told, there’s no one rendition of the regional dish. Depending on where you are in Armenia, gata comes in many forms. But generally, it can be made as a buttery, croissant-like pastry using baking powder and bicarbonate soda or as a more traditional loaf of bread made with a raising agent like yeast. The one consistent between the two varieties, Iskikian says, is that gata is always filled with the same style of sugary goodness.

“The filling is made of flour, clarified butter (ghee), sugar, a bit of vanilla and Armenian cognac or rum,” Iskikian tells SBS. “The combination of the outside and filling together should taste a bit crumbly but moist.”

Armenian women selling gata near the monastery of Geghard. (Photo: Jeanette Madden)
Source: Jeanette Madden

The sweet bread of Geghard monastery

The most famous version of gata is a round bread loaf marked with decorative motifs or the word ‘Geghard’, an edible representation of the Armenian village of the same name.

Situated in the midst of Armenia’s Upper Azat Valley, you’ll find gata being sold near a grand sculpture emitting natural beauty: the monastery of Geghard. According to UNESCO, the Christian church surrounded by cliffs and defensive walls was first carved into living rock around the start of the 4 th century AD.

Lining the walkway towards the rocky church in Geghard, elderly women man stalls and spruik locally made gata to visitors. “These women with beautiful wrinkles sell gata with great passion,” says Iskikian, who recently visited Geghard and tasted gata made by the famed vendors.

“Although gata is made throughout Armenia, the gata that the locals in Geghard make tastes different to gata from around the country. They use milk from their farms and put their own unique spirit into it.”

Arpy Iskikian, a caterer and cook from Sydney’s Armenian community, poses with a woman selling Armenian delicacies near Geghard. (Photo: Jennifer Tachejian)
Source: Jeanette Madden

Sweet freedom, lucky bread

As history dictates, gata’s origins are closely linked to the creation of the monastery. Founded by St. Gregory the Illuminator, the church was built after Christianity was first adopted as a state religion. No one knows how but it soon became a tradition for vendors to sell gata outside the monastery.

Iskikian, however, tells a modified version of the same story, as told to her by a school teacher in her youth. “The church was carved inside the rock because, at the time, Christians were being persecuted. The church became a secret place for the Christians to pray – from the outside, you couldn’t even tell it was a church.”

She explains that the concept of bread in Christianity is linked to the Last Supper, hence its popularity as a food by the early Christians in Geghard.

“Years passed and Christianity later became recognised as a state religion of Armenia. As people started practicing Christianity more freely in Geghard, they started adding sweetness inside the bread. From then on the bread consumed, known as gata, became associated with the sweetness of liberty and freedom.”

“Gata is baked during the wedding and later, broken over the head of the couple as a blessing of good luck.”

Given gata’s sweet affiliation, it’s also used in Armenia as a symbol of good luck at weddings. “Gata is baked during the wedding and later, broken over the head of the couple as a blessing of good luck.”

The dish is often offered to friends and family before they travel. “You take gata to their house to wish them a safe journey.”

Although gata is eaten all year round, it’s also traditional to consume it during the Christian holiday of Candlemas (Tiarn’ndaraj), occurring 40 days after Christmas on the Armenian calendar.

How to track down a taste

To the best of Iskikian’s knowledge, gata cannot be found in any supermarket or bakery throughout Australia. You’ll also have a tough (but not impossible) task to see it listed on a restaurant menu.

But if you’re Armenian, are invited to the house of an Armenian who makes it at home, or order it from a caterer within the Australian-Armenian community, you may be lucky enough to sample the delicacy.

“If people really like this kind of food, they can order it from women in the Armenian community who make traditional dishes.”

As a caterer in the Armenian community, Iskikian makes gata at home for her family and friends, and in a professional capacity for events and major celebrations. Beyond the taste of sweetness and religious significance, Iskikian says gata represents great national pride.

“Anything that comes from an Armenian tradition is very appealing to me. So I would like gata to be more common in Australia.

“You know why? I want the world to know what gata is and I want the world to know that gata is Armenian – the recipe doesn’t belong to anybody else but us.”


Fallingwater, Mill Run, Pennsylvania, US

Built: 1936-1939
A tumble of tiers hanging over a creek makes this house look as if it was designed with Jenga. The maestro’s "most beautiful job" (as cited by Time magazine on its completion), and a glorious example of his trademark organic architecture, was designed for department store mogul Edgar J Kaufmann and is renowned for its cantilevers over the Bear Run waterway. A museum since 1964 and a National Historic Landmark, it remains one of Wright’s masterpieces, merging home and landscape in a stunning piece of built theatre.


References

Apiryon, T. "Simon Magus." Ordo Templi Orientis . 1995. Accessed June 7, 2015. http://hermetic.com/sabazius/simon.htm

Eusebius of Caesarea . Church History . Trans. Paul L. Maier (Kregel Academic and Professional: Minnesota, 2007.)

Kirsch, Johann Peter. "Simon Magus." The Catholic Encyclopedia . 1912. Accessed June 4, 2015. http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/13797b.htm

Mead, G.S. "Simon Magus: An Essay on the Founder of Simonianism Based on the Ancient Sources with a Re-Evaluation of His Philosophy and Teachings." The Theosophical Society . London. 1892. Accessed June 5, 2015.

Woodworth, Christopher. St. Hippolytus and the Church of Rome in the earlier part of the third century. From the newly-discovered Philosophumena (Nabu Press: South Carolina, 2010.)


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