29 December 1939

29 December 1939

29 December 1939

December 1939


Winter War

Finns win a victory at Suomussalmi. Soviet expections of a quick victory begin to fade


Wolverhampton ( / ˌ w ʊ l v ər ˈ h æ m p t ə n / ( listen ) ) is a city, metropolitan borough, and administrative centre in the West Midlands, England. At the 2011 census, it had a population of 249,470. [2] [3] Natives of the city are called "Wulfrunians".

Historically part of Staffordshire, the city grew initially as a market town specialising in the wool trade. In the Industrial Revolution, it became a major centre for coal mining, steel production, lock making, and the manufacture of cars and motorcycles. The economy of the city is still based on engineering, including a large aerospace industry, as well as the service sector. [4]

June 8th, 1987 is a Monday. It is the 159th day of the year, and in the 24th week of the year (assuming each week starts on a Monday), or the 2nd quarter of the year. There are 30 days in this month. 1987 is not a leap year, so there are 365 days in this year. The short form for this date used in the United States is 6/8/1987, and almost everywhere else in the world it's 8/6/1987.

This site provides an online date calculator to help you find the difference in the number of days between any two calendar dates. Simply enter the start and end date to calculate the duration of any event. You can also use this tool to determine how many days have passed since your birthday, or measure the amount of time until your baby's due date. The calculations use the Gregorian calendar, which was created in 1582 and later adopted in 1752 by Britain and the eastern part of what is now the United States. For best results, use dates after 1752 or verify any data if you are doing genealogy research. Historical calendars have many variations, including the ancient Roman calendar and the Julian calendar. Leap years are used to match the calendar year with the astronomical year. If you're trying to figure out the date that occurs in X days from today, switch to the Days From Now calculator instead.

April 7th, 2004 is a Wednesday. It is the 98th day of the year, and in the 15th week of the year (assuming each week starts on a Monday), or the 2nd quarter of the year. There are 30 days in this month. 2004 is a leap year, so there are 366 days in this year. The short form for this date used in the United States is 4/7/2004, and almost everywhere else in the world it's 7/4/2004.

This site provides an online date calculator to help you find the difference in the number of days between any two calendar dates. Simply enter the start and end date to calculate the duration of any event. You can also use this tool to determine how many days have passed since your birthday, or measure the amount of time until your baby's due date. The calculations use the Gregorian calendar, which was created in 1582 and later adopted in 1752 by Britain and the eastern part of what is now the United States. For best results, use dates after 1752 or verify any data if you are doing genealogy research. Historical calendars have many variations, including the ancient Roman calendar and the Julian calendar. Leap years are used to match the calendar year with the astronomical year. If you're trying to figure out the date that occurs in X days from today, switch to the Days From Now calculator instead.

Sessions of Indian National Congress

The Founding Years (1885-1900)

28-30 December 1885

27-30 December 1886

27-30 December 1887

Badruddin Tyyabji (fist Muslim President)

26-29 December 1888

George Yule (first English President)

26-28 December 1889

26-30 December 1890

28-30 December 1891

28-30 December 1892

27-30 December 1893

26-29 December 1894

27-30 December 1895

28-31 December 1896

27-29 December 1897

29-31 December 1898

27-29 December 1899

27-29 December 1900

The Pre Independece Era (1900-1947)

26-28 December 1901

28-30 December 1902

28-30 December 1903

26-28 December 1904

27-30 December 1905

26-29 December 1906

26-27 December 1907

27-29 December 1909

26-29 December 1910

26-28 December 1911

26-28 December 1912

Raghunath Narasinha Mudholkar

26-28 December 1913

Nawab Syed Mohammed Bahadur

14-15 April 1914

27-29 December 1915

26-30 December 1916

26-29 December 1917

26-30 December 1918

29 August - 1 September 1918

26-30 December 1919

26-30 December 1920

27-28 December 1921

Hakim Ajmal Khan (Acting President for C.R. Das)

26-31 December 1922

Deshbandhu Chittaranjan Das

4-8 September 1923

26-27 December 1924

15-17 April 1925

26-28 December 1926

26-28 December 1927

29 December 1928 - 1 January 1929

16-18 April 1929

21-31 March 1931

12-14 September 1933

24-28 October 1934

18-20 June 1936

12-14 July 1937

19-21 February 1938

10-12 March 1939

19-20 March 1940

23-24 November 1946

The Indian National Congress was formed as a safety valve for civil and political dialogue among literate Indians. These sessions of the INC are asked in various competitive exams. So, aspirants must go through them thoroughly.

Nazi Germany timeline 1924-29

This Nazi Germany timeline contains a chronological list of significant events and developments in Germany, from 1924 to 1929. This timeline has been written by Alpha History authors.

February 24th: The treason trial of Adolf Hitler begins, inviting considerable publicity. He is later sentenced to five years’ prison.
May 4th: The NSDAP contests the Reichstag elections for the first time, winning a total of 24 seats.
December 7th: In the second Reichstag election of 1924, the NSDAP loses more than half of its 24 seats.
December 20th: Adolf Hitler is released from Landsberg prison after serving less than one year of his five-year sentence.

February 25th: President Ebert dies in office. He is succeeded by former general Paul von Hindenburg.
February 26th: Hitler calls for a “new beginning” for the NSDAP, as a legitimate political party rather than a revolutionary group.
May: Hitler orders the formation of the Schutzstaffel (SS), a small but elite bodyguard division within the SA.
May 22nd: Hitler’s power over the NSDAP is further extended when he becomes its supreme leader or fuhrer.

January: The membership of the Nazi Party is estimated at around 17,000.
February 14th: The Bamberg Conference of NSDAP leadership, where Hitler asserts his authority over the party.
July: The Hitler Youth is formally established.
October: Hitler appoints Josef Goebbels as Gauleiter (party organiser) of Berlin.
November 8th: NSDAP members gather in Munich to commemorate the anniversary of the 1923 putsch.

May: The Bavarian government lifts an order banning Hitler from giving public speeches. Later in May, he addresses 5,000 people in Berlin.
August 20th: The NSDAP stages its first party rally in the city of Nuremberg, with 15,000 attending.

May 20th: Another Reichstag general election sees Nazi representation drop to just 12 seats, its lowest ever return.

January: Josef Goebbels is appointed head of the NSDAP propaganda department.
September 14th: Another Reichstag election sees a dramatic boost in NSDAP seats, from 14 to 107.
October 24th: The Wall Street stock exchange in New York crashes, triggering the Great Depression.

Information and resources on this page are © Alpha History 2018. Content on this page may not be copied, republished or redistributed without the express permission of Alpha History. For more information please refer to our Terms of Use.

Teaching Career and Writing

When increased tuition fees compelled Miller to take a job teaching at M Street High School in Washington, D.C., he had to leave Johns Hopkins. However, he returned to Howard University the following year to take a teaching position. In 1895, Miller became the first person at the university to teach sociology.

Meanwhile, Miller continued his own education, pursuing a master&aposs degree in mathematics, which he earned in 1901, and by attending the College of Law, from which he earned his degree in 1903. In 1907, he became dean of Howard&aposs College of Arts and Sciences and initiated a modernization of the curriculum. During his tenure, Miller would make considerable efforts to recruit students for the school by touring the Southern states. His hard work would soon bear fruit, as undergraduate enrollment more than tripled during his first four years as dean.

While continuing to teach, Miller&aposs frequently published as well. His work included a weekly column in which he was able to express his social and political views and his 1908 book, Race Adjustment. Although he also assisted W.E.B. Du Bois in editing the NAACP&aposs official journal, he was aligned with neither liberal thinkers nor the conservatives of the Booker T. Washington faction. Instead, he stressed a middle ground that involved comprehensive education and self-sufficiency. His graduation address at Howard University in 1898 eloquently underscored his ideas.

Today in History, October 29, 1929: Stock market crashed, starting Great Depression

Crowds move past the New York Stock Exchange, second building from right, on New York's Wall Street at the height of the stock market crash, Oct. 24, 1929, as policemen on horseback keep the throng moving. (Photo: AP Photo)

Today is Oct. 29. On this date in:

President William McKinley’s assassin, Leon Czolgosz, was electrocuted.

“Black Tuesday” descended upon the New York Stock Exchange. Prices collapsed amid panic selling and thousands of investors were wiped out as America’s “Great Depression” began.

A chartered plane carrying the California Polytechnic State University football team crashed on takeoff from Toledo, killing 22 of the 48 people on board.

Sen. John Glenn, at age 77, roared back into space aboard the shuttle Discovery, retracing the trail he’d blazed for America’s astronauts 36 years earlier.

In this 1998 file photo, U.S. astronaut and Sen. John Glenn, then 77 years old, prepares to board the Space Shuttle Discovery. We need leaders with Glenn's courage now, Ohio Democratic Chairman David Pepper writes. (Photo: ROBERTO SCHMIDT AFP/Getty Images)

Osama bin Laden, in a videotaped statement, directly admitted for the first time that he’d ordered the Sept. 11 attacks and told America “the best way to avoid another Manhattan” was to stop threatening Muslims’ security.

Superstorm Sandy slammed ashore in New Jersey and slowly marched inland, devastating coastal communities and causing widespread power outages the storm and its aftermath were blamed for at least 182 deaths in the U.S.

All but 10 members of the Houston Texans took a knee during the national anthem, reacting to a remark from team owner Bob McNair to other NFL owners that “we can’t have the inmates running the prison.”


My friends:
This is not a fireside chat on war. It is a talk on national security, because the nub of the whole purpose of your President is to keep you now, and your children later, and your grandchildren much later, out of a last-ditch war for the preservation of American independence and all of the things that American independence means to you and to me and to ours.
Tonight, in the presence of a world crisis, my mind goes back eight years to a night in the midst of a domestic crisis. It was a time when the wheels of American industry were grinding to a full stop, when the whole banking system of our country had ceased to function.
I well remember that while I sat in my study in the White House, preparing to talk with the people of the United States, I had before my eyes the picture of all those Americans with whom I was talking. I saw the workmen in the mills, the mines, the factories the girl behind the counter the small shopkeeper the farmer doing his spring plowing the widows and the old men wondering about their life's savings.
I tried to convey to the great mass of American people what the banking crisis meant to them in their daily lives.
Tonight, I want to do the same thing, with the same people, in this new crisis which faces America.
We met the issue of 1933 with courage and realism.
We face this new crisis -- this new threat to the security of our nation -- with the same courage and realism.
Never before since Jamestown and Plymouth Rock has our American civilization been in such danger as now.
For, on September 27th, 1940, this year, by an agreement signed in Berlin, three powerful nations, two in Europe and one in Asia, joined themselves together in the threat that if the United States of America interfered with or blocked the expansion program of these three nations -- a program aimed at world control -- they would unite in ultimate action against the United States.
The Nazi masters of Germany have made it clear that they intend not only to dominate all life and thought in their own country, but also to enslave the whole of Europe, and then to use the resources of Europe to dominate the rest of the world.
It was only three weeks ago their leader stated this: " There are two worlds that stand opposed to each other." And then in defiant reply to his opponents, he said this: "Others are correct when they say: With this world we cannot ever reconcile ourselves . I can beat any other power in the world." So said the leader of the Nazis.
In other words, the Axis not merely admits but the Axis proclaims that there can be no ultimate peace between their philosophy of government and our philosophy of government.
In view of the nature of this undeniable threat, it can be asserted, properly and categorically, that the United States has no right or reason to encourage talk of peace, until the day shall come when there is a clear intention on the part of the aggressor nations to abandon all thought of dominating or conquering the world.
At this moment, the forces of the states that are leagued against all peoples who live in freedom are being held away from our shores. The Germans and the Italians are being blocked on the other side of the Atlantic by the British, and by the Greeks, and by thousands of soldiers and sailors who were able to escape from subjugated countries. In Asia the Japanese are being engaged by the Chinese nation in another great defense.
In the Pacific Ocean is our fleet.
Some of our people like to believe that wars in Europe and in Asia are of no concern to us. But it is a matter of most vital concern to us that European and Asiatic war-makers should not gain control of the oceans which lead to this hemisphere.
One hundred and seventeen years ago the Monroe Doctrine was conceived by our Government as a measure of defense in the face of a threat against this hemisphere by an alliance in Continental Europe. Thereafter, we stood (on) guard in the Atlantic, with the British as neighbors. There was no treaty. There was no "unwritten agreement."
And yet, there was the feeling, proven correct by history, that we as neighbors could settle any disputes in peaceful fashion. And the fact is that during the whole of this time the Western Hemisphere has remained free from aggression from Europe or from Asia.
Does anyone seriously believe that we need to fear attack anywhere in the Americas while a free Britain remains our most powerful naval neighbor in the Atlantic? And does anyone seriously believe, on the other hand, that we could rest easy if the Axis powers were our neighbors there?
If Great Britain goes down, the Axis powers will control the continents of Europe, Asia, Africa, Australia, and the high seas -- and they will be in a position to bring enormous military and naval resources against this hemisphere. It is no exaggeration to say that all of us, in all the Americas, would be living at the point of a gun -- a gun loaded with explosive bullets, economic as well as military.
We should enter upon a new and terrible era in which the whole world, our hemisphere included, would be run by threats of brute force. And to survive in such a world, we would have to convert ourselves permanently into a militaristic power on the basis of war economy.
Some of us like to believe that even if (Great) Britain falls, we are still safe, because of the broad expanse of the Atlantic and of the Pacific.
But the width of those (these) oceans is not what it was in the days of clipper ships. At one point between Africa and Brazil the distance is less from Washington than it is from Washington to Denver, Colorado -- five hours for the latest type of bomber. And at the North end of the Pacific Ocean America and Asia almost touch each other.
Why, even today we have planes that (which) could fly from the British Isles to New England and back again without refueling. And remember that the range of a (the) modern bomber is ever being increased.
During the past week many people in all parts of the nation have told me what they wanted me to say tonight. Almost all of them expressed a courageous desire to hear the plain truth about the gravity of the situation. One telegram, however, expressed the attitude of the small minority who want to see no evil and hear no evil, even though they know in their hearts that evil exists. That telegram begged me not to tell again of the ease with which our American cities could be bombed by any hostile power which had gained bases in this Western Hemisphere. The gist of that telegram was: "Please, Mr. President, don't frighten us by telling us the facts."
Frankly and definitely there is danger ahead -- danger against which we must prepare. But we well know that we cannot escape danger (it), or the fear of danger, by crawling into bed and pulling the covers over our heads.
Some nations of Europe were bound by solemn non-intervention pacts with Germany. Other nations were assured by Germany that they need never fear invasion. Non-intervention pact or not, the fact remains that they were attacked, overrun, (and) thrown into (the) modern (form of) slavery at an hour's notice, or even without any notice at all. As an exiled leader of one of these nations said to me the other day, "The notice was a minus quantity. It was given to my Government two hours after German troops had poured into my country in a hundred places."
The fate of these nations tells us what it means to live at the point of a Nazi gun.
The Nazis have justified such actions by various pious frauds. One of these frauds is the claim that they are occupying a nation for the purpose of "restoring order." Another is that they are occupying or controlling a nation on the excuse that they are "protecting it" against the aggression of somebody else.
For example, Germany has said that she was occupying Belgium to save the Belgians from the British. Would she then hesitate to say to any South American country, "We are occupying you to protect you from aggression by the United States?"
Belgium today is being used as an invasion base against Britain, now fighting for its life. And any South American country, in Nazi hands, would always constitute a jumping-off place for German attack on any one of the other republics of this hemisphere.
Analyze for yourselves the future of two other places even nearer to Germany if the Nazis won. Could Ireland hold out? Would Irish freedom be permitted as an amazing pet exception in an unfree world? Or the Islands of the Azores which still fly the flag of Portugal after five centuries? You and I think of Hawaii as an outpost of defense in the Pacific. And yet, the Azores are closer to our shores in the Atlantic than Hawaii is on the other side.
There are those who say that the Axis powers would never have any desire to attack the Western Hemisphere. That (this) is the same dangerous form of wishful thinking which has destroyed the powers of resistance of so many conquered peoples. The plain facts are that the Nazis have proclaimed, time and again, that all other races are their inferiors and therefore subject to their orders. And most important of all, the vast resources and wealth of this American Hemisphere constitute the most tempting loot in all of the round world.
Let us no longer blind ourselves to the undeniable fact that the evil forces which have crushed and undermined and corrupted so many others are already within our own gates. Your Government knows much about them and every day is ferreting them out.
Their secret emissaries are active in our own and in neighboring countries. They seek to stir up suspicion and dissension to cause internal strife. They try to turn capital against labor, and vice versa. They try to reawaken long slumbering racist and religious enmities which should have no place in this country. They are active in every group that promotes intolerance. They exploit for their own ends our own natural abhorrence of war. These trouble-breeders have but one purpose. It is to divide our people, to divide them into hostile groups and to destroy our unity and shatter our will to defend ourselves.
There are also American citizens, many of then in high places, who, unwittingly in most cases, are aiding and abetting the work of these agents. I do not charge these American citizens with being foreign agents. But I do charge them with doing exactly the kind of work that the dictators want done in the United States.
These people not only believe that we can save our own skins by shutting our eyes to the fate of other nations. Some of them go much further than that. They say that we can and should become the friends and even the partners of the Axis powers. Some of them even suggest that we should imitate the methods of the dictatorships. But Americans never can and never will do that.
The experience of the past two years has proven beyond doubt that no nation can appease the Nazis. No man can tame a tiger into a kitten by stroking it. There can be no appeasement with ruthlessness. There can be no reasoning with an incendiary bomb. We know now that a nation can have peace with the Nazis only at the price of total surrender.
Even the people of Italy have been forced to become accomplices of the Nazis, but at this moment they do not know how soon they will be embraced to death by their allies.
The American appeasers ignore the warning to be found in the fate of Austria, Czechoslovakia, Poland, Norway, Belgium, the Netherlands, Denmark and France. They tell you that the Axis powers are going to win anyway that all of this bloodshed in the world could be saved, that the United States might just as well throw its influence into the scale of a dictated peace, and get the best out of it that we can.
They call it a "negotiated peace." Nonsense! Is it a negotiated peace if a gang of outlaws surrounds your community and on threat of extermination makes you pay tribute to save your own skins?
Such a dictated peace would be no peace at all. It would be only another armistice, leading to the most gigantic armament race and the most devastating trade wars in all history. And in these contests the Americas would offer the only real resistance to the Axis powers.
With all their vaunted efficiency, with all their (and) parade of pious purpose in this war, there are still in their background the concentration camp and the servants of God in chains.
The history of recent years proves that the shootings and the chains and the concentration camps are not simply the transient tools but the very altars of modern dictatorships. They may talk of a "new order" in the world, but what they have in mind is only (but) a revival of the oldest and the worst tyranny. In that there is no liberty, no religion, no hope.
The proposed "new order" is the very opposite of a United States of Europe or a United States of Asia. It is not a government based upon the consent of the governed. It is not a union of ordinary, self-respecting men and women to protect themselves and their freedom and their dignity from oppression. It is an unholy alliance of power and pelf to dominate and to enslave the human race.
The British people and their allies today are conducting an active war against this unholy alliance. Our own future security is greatly dependent on the outcome of that fight. Our ability to "keep out of war" is going to be affected by that outcome.
Thinking in terms of today and tomorrow, I make the direct statement to the American people that there is far less chance of the United States getting into war if we do all we can now to support the nations defending themselves against attack by the Axis than if we acquiesce in their defeat, submit tamely to an Axis victory, and wait our turn to be the object of attack in another war later on.
If we are to be completely honest with ourselves, we must admit that there is risk in any course we may take. But I deeply believe that the great majority of our people agree that the course that I advocate involves the least risk now and the greatest hope for world peace in the future.
The people of Europe who are defending themselves do not ask us to do their fighting. They ask us for the implements of war, the planes, the tanks, the guns, the freighters which will enable them to fight for their liberty and for our security. Emphatically we must get these weapons to them, get them to them in sufficient volume and quickly enough, so that we and our children will be saved the agony and suffering of war which others have had to endure.
Let not the defeatists tell us that it is too late. It will never be earlier. Tomorrow will be later than today.
Certain facts are self-evident.
In a military sense Great Britain and the British Empire are today the spearhead of resistance to world conquest. And they are putting up a fight which will live forever in the story of human gallantry.
There is no demand for sending an American Expeditionary Force outside our own borders. There is no intention by any member of your Government to send such a force. You can, therefore, nail -- nail any talk about sending armies to Europe as deliberate untruth.
Our national policy is not directed toward war. Its sole purpose is to keep war away from our country and away from our people.
Democracy's fight against world conquest is being greatly aided, and must be more greatly aided, by the rearmament of the United States and by sending every ounce and every ton of munitions and supplies that we can possibly spare to help the defenders who are in the front lines. And it is no more unneutral for us to do that than it is for Sweden, Russia and other nations near Germany to send steel and ore and oil and other war materials into Germany every day in the week.
We are planning our own defense with the utmost urgency, and in its vast scale we must integrate the war needs of Britain and the other free nations which are resisting aggression.
This is not a matter of sentiment or of controversial personal opinion. It is a matter of realistic, practical military policy, based on the advice of our military experts who are in close touch with existing warfare. These military and naval experts and the members of the Congress and the Administration have a single-minded purpose -- the defense of the United States.
This nation is making a great effort to produce everything that is necessary in this emergency -- and with all possible speed. And this great effort requires great sacrifice.
I would ask no one to defend a democracy which in turn would not defend everyone in the nation against want and privation. The strength of this nation shall not be diluted by the failure of the Government to protect the economic well-being of its (all) citizens.
If our capacity to produce is limited by machines, it must ever be remembered that these machines are operated by the skill and the stamina of the workers. As the Government is determined to protect the rights of the workers, so the nation has a right to expect that the men who man the machines will discharge their full responsibilities to the urgent needs of defense.
The worker possesses the same human dignity and is entitled to the same security of position as the engineer or the manager or the owner. For the workers provide the human power that turns out the destroyers, and the (air)planes and the tanks.
The nation expects our defense industries to continue operation without interruption by strikes or lockouts. It expects and insists that management and workers will reconcile their differences by voluntary or legal means, to continue to produce the supplies that are so sorely needed.
And on the economic side of our great defense program, we are, as you know, bending every effort to maintain stability of prices and with that the stability of the cost of living.
Nine days ago I announced the setting up of a more effective organization to direct our gigantic efforts to increase the production of munitions. The appropriation of vast sums of money and a well coordinated executive direction of our defense efforts are not in themselves enough. Guns, planes, (and) ships and many other things have to be built in the factories and the arsenals of America. They have to be produced by workers and managers and engineers with the aid of machines which in turn have to be built by hundreds of thousands of workers throughout the land.
In this great work there has been splendid cooperation between the Government and industry and labor, and I am very thankful.
American industrial genius, unmatched throughout all the world in the solution of production problems, has been called upon to bring its resources and its talents into action. Manufacturers of watches, of farm implements, of linotypes, and cash registers, and automobiles, and sewing machines, and lawn mowers and locomotives are now making fuses, bomb packing crates, telescope mounts, shells, and pistols and tanks.
But all of our present efforts are not enough. We must have more ships, more guns, more planes -- more of everything. And this can only be accomplished if we discard the notion of "business as usual." This job cannot be done merely by superimposing on the existing productive facilities the added requirements of the nation for defense.
Our defense efforts must not be blocked by those who fear the future consequences of surplus plant capacity. The possible consequences of failure of our defense efforts now are much more to be feared.
And after the present needs of our defense are past, a proper handling of the country's peacetime needs will require all of the new productive capacity -- if not still more.
No pessimistic policy about the future of America shall delay the immediate expansion of those industries essential to defense. We need them.
I want to make it clear that it is the purpose of the nation to build now with all possible speed every machine, every arsenal, every (and) factory that we need to manufacture our defense material. We have the men -- the skill -- the wealth -- and above all, the will.
I am confident that if and when production of consumer or luxury goods in certain industries requires the use of machines and raw materials that are essential for defense purposes, then such production must yield, and will gladly yield, to our primary and compelling purpose.
So I appeal to the owners of plants -- to the managers -to the workers -- to our own Government employees -- to put every ounce of effort into producing these munitions swiftly and without stint. (And) With this appeal I give you the pledge that all of us who are officers of your Government will devote ourselves to the same whole-hearted extent to the great task that (which) lies ahead.
As planes and ships and guns and shells are produced, your Government, with its defense experts, can then determine how best to use them to defend this hemisphere. The decision as to how much shall be sent abroad and how much shall remain at home must be made on the basis of our overall military necessities.
We must be the great arsenal of democracy. For us this is an emergency as serious as war itself. We must apply ourselves to our task with the same resolution, the same sense of urgency, the same spirit of patriotism and sacrifice as we would show were we at war.
We have furnished the British great material support and we will furnish far more in the future. There will be no "bottlenecks" in our determination to aid Great Britain. No dictator, no combination of dictators, will weaken that determination by threats of how they will construe that determination.
The British have received invaluable military support from the heroic Greek army and from the forces of all the governments in exile. Their strength is growing. It is the strength of men and women who value their freedom more highly than they value their lives.
I believe that the Axis powers are not going to win this war. I base that belief on the latest and best of information.
We have no excuse for defeatism. We have every good reason for hope -- hope for peace, yes, and hope for the defense of our civilization and for the building of a better civilization in the future.
I have the profound conviction that the American people are now determined to put forth a mightier effort than they have ever yet made to increase our production of all the implements of defense, to meet the threat to our democratic faith.
As President of the United States I call for that national effort. I call for it in the name of this nation which we love and honor and which we are privileged and proud to serve. I call upon our people with absolute confidence that our common cause will greatly succeed.


1936 William Horlick died (born 1846). Manufacturer of food for infants and invalids, he created and patented (1883) a new formulae named 'Diastoid' - later renamed and trademarked as 'malted milk' which found new and unexpected uses and markets.

1936 The last Tasmanian Tiger died at the Hobart Zoo in Tasmania, Australia. This dog-like marsupial was systematically exterminated as an undesirable predator of farm animals.

Jim Henson, puppeteer was born on September 24. Creator of the 'Muppets' - including Miss Piggy and the Cookie Monster.

1936 Cunard line’s ‘Queen Mary’ set sail on her maiden voyage.

1936 The first 32 ounce quart beer cans appeared.

1936 Ivan Petrovich Pavlov died. Pavlov's work with dogs actually started as a study of digestion. He theorized that digestion was controlled in part by sensory inputs of sight, smell and taste - and as he discovered, ding-ding - sound 'conditioned reflex.'

1936 Canned beer is sold to the public in Britain for the first time, by Felinfoel Brewery in Wales.

1936 A patent was granted for the first bottle with a screw cap to Edward Ravenscroft of Glencoe, Illinois.

1936 Sylvan Goldman & Fred Young invented the first shopping cart.

1936 Rural Electrification Act (REA) greatly improves the quality of rural life.

1936 The 5th Avenue candy bar was introduced.

1936 Louis Ballast of Denver, Colorado was given a trademark for the name 'cheeseburger' in 1936. He never enforced it though.

1936 The Cobb salad was invented by Robert Cobb at his Brown Derby Restaurant in Hollywood, California.

1936 In Georgia, William Stuckey sets up a roadside stand to sell homegrown pecans and homemade candy.

1936 Congress approved the 40-hour work week.

1936 The first American blue cheese plant was founded by Felix Frederickson in 1936 in Faribault, Minnesota.

1936 Wally Amos, Jr. born. Originator of Famous Amos Chocolate Chip Cookies. He sold the name, and now makes Uncle Noname chocolate chip cookies.

1936 Henry F. Phillips patented the Phillips-head screw and screwdriver.

1936 The Oscar Mayer Wienermobile is invented. It is a giant hot dog on wheels. Invented by Carl Mayer, nephew of Oscar Mayer, it was built by General Body Company at Chicago, Illinois. There are now a fleet of six. www.oscar-mayer.com

1936 The Army Subsistence Research Laboratory opened. It was devoted solely to developing foods for the Army. One of its first products was the 'Logan Bar,' developed by Paul P. Logan, used in the Army's emergency 'D Ration.'

1936 The first patent was issued for a commercial scale hydroponic system for plant culture (a 'hydroponicum'). Ernest Walfrid Brundin and Frank F. Lyon received the patent on the system they had set up the previous year.

1936 Harland Sanders is made an honorary Kentucky Colonel by governor Ruby Laffoon in recognition of his contributions to the state's cuisine.

1936 Cola flavored Jell-O was introduced. It didn't sell and was dropped after about one year.

1936 Fredy Girardet was born. Swiss chef, he is considered one of the greatest chefs in the world, and his restaurant in Crissier, Switzerland one of the best in the world.

1936 'Horse Eats Hat' opened at Maxine Elliott's Theatre in New York City.

1937 Life magazine removed its logo from the cover to feature a full cover photo of a White Leghorn Rooster's head by innovative photographer Torkel Korling.

1937 The first annual meeting of the General Wildlife Foundation, becoming the National Wildlife Federation in 1938.

1937 Antonio Carluccio was born. Italian chef, restaurateur and cookbook author. TV show 'Antonio Carluccio's Italian Feast'

1937 Charles E. Hires died on July 31. Manufacturer and creator of Hires Root Beer.

1937 Marcel Boulestin became the first television cook when he presented the first of the Cook’s Night Out programmes on the BBC.

1937 Dr. Wallace Hume Carothers received a patent for Nylon. (Which he discovered in 1935). One of its first uses was to replace the hog bristles that had been used in toothbrushes.

1937 The cities of Dilley, Texas, and Crystal City, Texas each erected a statue of Popeye, the cartoon character.

1937 Daffy Duck makes his debut appearance in 'Porky,s Duck Hunt’

1937 Francis Stephen Castelluccio was born. Better known as Frankie Valli of 'The Four Seasons' singing group.

1937 William Morton Wheeler died. American entomologist, a world authority on ants. His books include 'Ants: Their Structure, Development and Behavior' (1910) and 'Social LIfe Among the Insects' (1923).

1937 World's largest flower blooms in NY Botanical Garden, a 12 foot calla lily.

1937 August Busch III was born, current president and chairman of Anheuser Busch (Budweiser Beer, etc.)

1937 The first Krispy Kreme doughnut is sold in Salem, North Carolina.

1937 J.R.R. Tolkein's 'The Hobbit' was published. Hobbits were well known as both gourmets and gourmands.

1937 'Woman's Day' magazine began publishing.

1937 Walt Disney's first full length animated film "Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs" opened in Los Angeles, California. It ran for 83 minutes and cost $1.5 million to make.

1937 Spam was developed by George A. Hormel & Co. and first marketed in 1937.

1937 Candy maker Frank C. Mars of Minnesota introduced the 5 cent Three Musketeers bar in 1937. The original 3 Musketeers bar contained 3 bars in one wrapper. Each with different flavor nougat.

1937 Kraft Macaroni & Cheese was introduced. Make a meal in 9 minutes or less for 19 cents or less.

1937 Wallace Smith, founder of La Choy Food was killed by a bolt of lightning.

1937 Kix Corn Puff cereal was introduced.

1937 Pepperidge Farm Bread was introduced.

1937 Spinach growers in the U.S. erected a statue in honor of Popeye the comic strip sailor.

1937 First soil conservation district in the U.S. organized.

1937 Chester Greenwood died (born 1858 in Farmington, Maine). He invented and patented the earmuff while still a teenager (U.S. patent No. 188,292 - March 13, 1877). He also patented many other inventions including a tea kettle and a steel tined rack. In 1977 Maine designated December 21 as Chester Greenwood Day.

1937 Alain Chapel was born (died 1990). French Master Chef and restaurateur. His restaurant, Alain Chapel, was awarded its 3rd Michelin star in 1973 and maintained it throughout his life. Chapel is considered one of the originators of 'Nouvelle Cuisine.'

1938 Rocky Aoki was born (died 2008). Founder of Benihana Japanese Steakhouse restaurant chain.

1938 DuPont begins production of nylon toothbrush bristles. A patent had been granted in 1937. The nylon bristles replaced hog bristles. No more brushing your teeth with hog hair!

1938 The first Superman comic book is published.

1938 The new Federal minimum wage law guaranteed workers 40¢ per hour.

1938 Nestle introduced Nescafe instant coffee in Switzerland.

1938 The 'Queen Elizabeth,' the largest passenger liner of its time, was launched in Scotland. The world's largest floating restaurant.

1938 Agricultural Adjustment Act established four regional research centers to develop new uses for farm products. Locations were Wyndmoor, PA Peoria, Il Albany, CA and New Orleans, LA.

1938 Food, Drug and Cosmetic Act passed.

1938 Edward Murray East died. An American botanist and chemist he helped with the development of hybrid corn. Specifically, he concentrated on controlling the protein and fat content of possible hybrids.

1938 Typhoid Mary (Mary Mallon) died at North Brother Island, New York City. Infamous household cook who was responsible for major outbreaks of typhoid in the New York City area in 1904, 1907, and 1914. She was immune to typhoid, but was a carrier of the bacillus, and spread it wherever she worked as a household cook.

1938 A coelacanth was caught off the coast of South Africa. The coelacanth is a primitive fish thought to have been extinct for more than 80 million years. Since then another coelacanth population has been discovered in Indonesia.

1938 The Harger 'Drunkometer', the first alcohol breath testing device, was introduced in Indiana.

1938 Roy J. Plunkett of New Carlisle, Ohio discovered Teflon by accident.

1938 Nestle's Crunch candy bar invented.

1938 Prosper Montagne's 'Larousse Gastronomique' was published.

1938 Gold Bond Trading Stamps were introduced.

1938 Lawry's Seasoned salt was created by Lawrence L. Frank for use in his new restaurant, Lawry's The Prime Rib in Los Angeles.

1938 Hershey's Krackel bar was introduced.

1938 Mott's Apple Juice was introduced.

1938 Construction workers find the skeleton of a giant 8 foot Pleistocene beaver.

1938 Martians attack Earth! as Orson Welles’ radio broadcast of H.G. Wells ‘ War of the Worlds ’ panics millions of listeners.

1938 John Galardi was born (died April 13, 2013). Founder of Wienerschnitzel (originally Der Wienerschnitzel) hot dog fast food chain.

1938 Achille Gaggia applied for a patent on the first modern expresso maker. The machine forced boiling water through the coffee grounds at high pressure.

1938 Elzie Crisler Segar died. Creator of the spinach loving Popeye the Sailer Man.

1938 'Jelly Roll Blues' was recorded by Bunny Berigan and his orchestra.

1939 Rose Gray was born. One of the most influential British chefs and restaurateurs of the 20th century. Co-founder and chef of River Cafe in London, "a little piece of Italy on the Thames."

1939 The 1939 New York World's Fair opened. 'Dawn of a New Day' and 'the World of Tomorrow.'

1939 The final broadcast of the NBC musical variety radio show 'The Royal Gelatin Hour' (formerly 'The Fleischmann's Yeast Hour' from 1929-1936).

1939 The college fad of swallowing Live Goldfish supposedly began on the campus of Harvard University today.

1939 'Three Little Fishies' was recorded by Hal Kemp and his Orchestra.

1939 On June 7, grapefruit sized hail kills hundreds of farm animals in Rock County, Minnesota.

1939 Jeff Smith was born (died 2004). TV's 'Frugal Gourmet' and cookbook author.

1939 U.S. agricultural exports were about $765 million a year during the 1930s (32% of total exports).

1939 The seedless watermelon was developed.

1939 Maximilian Bircher-Benner died. He was a Swiss doctor who developed the cereal product 'Muesli,' which is similar to Granola.

1939 Rep. Cleveland Sleeper Jr introduces a bill to the Maine Legislature to make it illegal to use tomatoes in clam chowder.

1939 'The Grapes of Wrath' by John Steinbeck was published.

1939 The Andrew Sisters record 'Beer Barrel Polka.'

1939 President Franklin D. Roosevelt served hot dogs to King George VI and Queen Elizabeth of England during their 1939 visit to the United States. It was the first time they had tried this American gourmet treat.

1939 Usefulness of crossbreeding to improve the efficiency of beef production demonstrated.

1939 Federal Seed Act required truthful labeling on vegetable seeds in interstate commerce and prohibited importation of low-quality seed.

1939 First grade standards were issued by USDA for a frozen product—peas.

1939 The first U.S. patent was issued for a disposable whipped cream aerosol container. Julius S. Kahn's patent was titled "An Apparatus for Mixing a Liquid with a Gas" and was specifically concerned with making whipped cream, using an ordinary soda bottle.

1939 The first Wheaties TV commercial (live) aired when host Red Barbar promoted it during a Brooklyn Dodgers game (Variety, August 30, 1939). Later the Dodgers did a promotion dressed in street clothes saying 'Yum, Yum Stuff!' (Variety, April 24, 1940)

1939 'The Man Who Came to Dinner' opened on Broadway.

1939 Employees at DuPont's factory in Wilmington, Delaware purchased the first nylon stockings for sale in the U.S. They were available nationally in May, 1940.

1939 Pan American Airways flew the first trans-Atlantic passenger service, from New York to Lisbon, Portugal.

1940 There are fewer than 4,000 television sets in the U.S.

1940 David Murray Cowie died (born 1872). An American pediatrician, he was a pioneer in convincing table salt producers to add iodine to their product to reduce the incidence of goiter (swelling of the thyroid gland) in the U.S.

1940 Packaged beer (cans & bottles) outsells draught beer for the first time.

1940 There are fewer than 4,000 television sets in the U.S.

1940 There are 6,200 dairies in Connecticut.

1940 The population of the U.S. is now 132,164,569. Farmers are 18% of the labor force. There are about 6,102,000 farms, averaging about 175 acres.

1940 About 33% of U.S. farms have electricity, 25% have telephones and 58% have automobiles.

1940 York Peppermint Patties were introduced.

1940 The U.S. sheep population reached a high of 51 million. By 2004 that number was down to 6 million.

1940 Italian operatic soprano, Louisia Tetrazzini, died. Chicken Tetrazzini, created by a New York chef, was named in her honor.

1940 John Steinbeck receives the Pulitzer Prize for his novel 'The Grapes of Wrath.'

1940 Nylon stockings went on sale for the first time in the U.S. in Wilmington, Delaware.

1940 Paul Prudhomme was born. Louisiana born chef and restaurateur. He owned his first restaurant at the age of 17, and in 1979 opened his world famous Cajun restaurant, K-Pauls. He has written several best selling cookbooks.

1940 Bugs Bunny makes his screen debut in 'A Wild Hare.'

1940 The London production of 'Apple Sauce' opened at the Holborn Empire Theatre.

1940 Lillian D. Wald died. She was a scientist and nurse, and among her activities, she helped initiate the enactment of pure food laws in the U.S.

1940 Of gainfully employed persons, 18 percent were engaged in agriculture.

1940 The caves at Lascaux in France are discovered. They contain some of the earliest know art, dating back over 15,000 years. The prehistoric cave paintings (over 600) depict many large animals including aurochs, red deer, horses, stags, bison, etc.

1940 Woody Woodpecker made his debut in the cartoon 'Knock Knock.'

1940 David Gates of the music group 'Bread' was born.

1940 'Corn Silk' was recorded by Guy Lombardo and his Royal Canadians.

1940 Hot Tuna and Jefferson Airplane guitarist Jorma Kaukonen was born.

1940 The first Dairy Queen opened in Joliet, Illinois.

1940 M&M's candy invented.

1940 The final day of the New York World's Fair (opened April 30, 1939). 'Dawn of a New Day' and 'the World of Tomorrow.'

1940 The 'Original Recipe' for Kentucky Fried Chicken was developed by Harland Sanders.

1940 James Beard's first cookbook was published, 'Hors d'Oeuvres and Canapes: With a Key to the Cocktail Party'

1940 In January, Britain's Ministry of Food instituted rationing of butter, sugar and bacon.

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Watch the video: WW2 in animated maps: Sept 1939 - Aug 1940